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ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER



Justice: To neither harm nor be harmed

ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER

The individual is at least 18 years old. Since childhood or adolescence, was dishonest, uncaring, irresponsible and disrespectful. Shows a callous disregard for the rights of others, and a marked lack of empathy, remorse, loving, or kindness. This was not due to a medical or substance use disorder.

Predictions:

Lasts For Years/Lifetime

      Occupational-Economic:
  • Works poorly with others (significant periods of unemployment; failure to honor financial obligations)
      Cooperation (Critical, Quarrelsome):
    Violence Before Age 15:
  • Often bullied, threatened, or intimidated others
  • Often initiated physical fights
  • Used a potentially lethal weapon in a fight
  • Had been physically cruel to people
  • Had been physically cruel to animals

  • Violence After Age 15:
  • Often was irritable and aggressive
      Justice (Disorganized, Careless):
    Irresponsibility Before Age 15:
  • Had stolen while confronting a victim
  • Sexually abused someone
  • Deliberately engaged in potentially serious fire-setting
  • Deliberately destroyed others' property (other than fire setting)
  • Broke into someone else's house, building, or car
  • Often lied
  • Often stole (without confrontation of a victim)
  • Ran away from home
  • Before age 13, often stayed out at night despite parental prohibitions
  • Before age 13, often was truant from school

  • Irresponsibility After Age 15:
  • Often broke the law
  • Often lied, used aliases, or conned others
  • Often was impulsive or failed to plan ahead
  • Often had reckless disregard for safety of self or others
  • Often was irresponsible at work or with money
  • Often lacked remorse
      Wisdom: N/A
      Self-Control: N/A
      Courage: N/A

      High Probability          Medium Probability          Not Applicable


Explanation Of Terms And Symbols


What Is Antisocial Personality Disorder?

SAPAS Personality Screening Test

Individuals with this disorder would answer "Yes" to the red questions:

      In general, do you have difficulty making and keeping friends?
      Would you normally describe yourself as a loner?
      In general, do you trust other people? (No)
      Do you normally lose your temper easily?
      Are you normally an impulsive sort of person?
      Are you normally a worrier?
      In general, do you depend on others a lot?
      In general, are you a perfectionist?


Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale


Click Here For Free Diagnosis

Example Of Our Computer Generated Diagnostic Assessment

Antisocial Personality Disorder 301.7

This diagnosis is based on the following findings:
  • The individual is at least 18 years old
  • Since age 15, often broke the law ( still present )
  • Since age 15, often lied, used aliases, or conned others ( still present )
  • Since age 15, often was impulsive or failed to plan ahead ( still present )
  • Since age 15, often was irritable and aggressive ( still present )
  • Since age 15, often had reckless disregard for safety of self or others ( still present )
  • Since age 15, often was irresponsible at work or with money ( still present )
  • Since age 15, often lacked remorse ( still present )
  • Before age 15, often bullied, threatened, or intimidated others ( still present )
  • Before age 15, often initiated physical fights ( still present )
  • Before age 15, used a potentially lethal weapon in a fight ( still present )
  • Before age 15, had been physically cruel to people ( still present )
  • Before age 15, had been physically cruel to animals ( still present )
  • Before age 15, had stolen while confronting a victim ( still present )
  • Before age 15, sexually abused someone ( still present )
  • Before age 15, deliberately engaged in potentially serious fire-setting ( still present )
  • Before age 15, deliberately destroyed others' property (other than fire setting) ( still present )
  • Before age 15, broke into someone else's house, building, or car ( still present )
  • Before age 15, often lied ( still present )
  • Before age 15, often stole (without confrontation of a victim) ( still present )
  • Before age 13, often stayed out at night despite parental prohibitions
  • Before age 15, ran away from home
  • Before age 13, often was truant from school
  • This disorder did not exclusively occur during the course of Schizophrenia or a Manic Episode

Predictions:

Individuals with Antisocial-Psychopathic Personality exploit others, experience little remorse for harm or injury they cause to others, and have poor impulse control.

These individuals:
  • Take advantage of others, lie or deceive, and are manipulative.
  • Show a reckless disregard for the rights, property, or safety of others.
  • Lack empathy for other people's needs and feelings.
  • Experience little remorse for harm or injury they cause.
  • Appear impervious to consequences and seem unable or unwilling to modify their behavior in response to threats or consequences.
  • Generally lack psychological insight and blame their difficulties on other people or circumstances.
  • Often appear to gain pleasure by being sadistic or aggressive toward others, and they may attempt to dominate significant others through intimidation or violence.
  • Are impulsive, seek thrills, novelty, and excitement, and require high levels of stimulation.
  • Are unreliable and irresponsible and may fail to meet work obligations or honor financial commitments.
  • May engage in antisocial behavior, including unlawful activities, substance abuse, or interpersonal violence.
  • May repeatedly convince others of their commitment to change, leading others to think "this time is really different," only to revert to their previous maladaptive behavior.
    • (Note: "Predictions" is only available in the therapist version of the computerized assessment.)

Treatment Goals:

  • Goal: stop law-breaking.
    If this problem persists: She may continue to perform criminal acts that are grounds for arrest (whether she is arrested or not), such as destroying property, harassing others, stealing, or pursuing illegal occupations.

  • Goal: stop deceiving and manipulating others.
    If this problem persists: She may continue to lie, use an alias, con others, or malinger.

  • Goal: stop self-defeating, impulsive behavior.
    If this problem persists: She may continue to make decisions on the spur of the moment, without considering the consequences. This may lead to (self-defeating) sudden changes of jobs, residences, or relationships.

  • Goal: stop irritable and aggressive behavior.
    If this problem persists: She may continue to get into physical fights or violence (e.g., spouse beating or child beating).

  • Goal: stop reckless disregard for own safety or that of others.
    If this problem persists: She may continue to display a reckless disregard for safety (e.g., dangerous driving, high risk sexual behavior, substance abuse, child neglect).

  • Goal: stop occupational and financial irresponsibility.
    If this problem persists: She may continue to be irresponsible at work, unemployed and financially irresponsible (e.g., defaulting on debts, failing to provide child support, or failing to support his family on a regular basis).

  • Goal: accept responsibility for own wrong-doing.
    If this problem persists: She may continue to blame her victims for being foolish, helpless, or deserving their fate. She may continue to minimize the harmful consequences of her actions, or she may simply indicate complete indifference.


Diagnostic Features

Antisocial Personality Disorder is a condition characterized by persistent disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Deceit, manipulation and exploitation of others are central features of this disorder. For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least 18, and must have had some symptoms of Conduct Disorder (i.e., delinquency) before age 15. This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and very disabling or distressing. This disorder should not be diagnosed if its symptoms occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder, or if it is attributable to Substance Use Disorder or another medical condition.

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder grow up being lawless and impulsive. The core features of this disorder are: (1) antagonism (manipulativeness, callousness, deceitfulness, hostility), and (2) disinhibition (risk taking, impulsivity, irresponsibility). This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) the individual is at least 18, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

In childhood, these individuals usually have Oppositional Defiant Disorder (towards parents and teachers) which develops into Conduct Disorder (delinquency) in adolescence. This delinquency takes the form of reckless thrill-seeking, physical violence (towards people or animals), and law-breaking. These individuals become the school bullies, thieves, vandals, and drug-dealers. Most adolescent delinquents grow out of this behavior as they enter adulthood. However, those that increase their delinquent behavior as they enter adulthood have their diagnosis changed from Conduct Disorder to Antisocial Personality Disorder.

In adulthood, individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder become more antagonistic. They show an exaggerated sense of self-importance, insensitivity towards the feelings and needs of others, and callous exploitation of others. Their increased manipulativeness, callousness, deceitfulness, and hostility repeatedly puts them at odds with other people.

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder often are divorced, have alcohol/drug abuse, anxiety, depression, unemployment, homelessness, and criminal behavior. However, some individuals with this disorder rise to high positions of power in society by becoming masters of manipulation and deceit.

Benjamin (1996, p. 197) describes the core features of those with antisocial personality disorder as consisting of:

    "a pattern of inappropriate and unmodulated desire to control others, implemented in a detached manner. There is a strong need to be independent, to resist being controlled by others, who are usually held in contempt. There is a willingness to use untamed aggression to back up the need for control or independence. The [antisocial personality] usually presents in a friendly, sociable manner, but that friendliness is always accompanied by a baseline position of detachment. He or she doesn't care what happens to self or others".

Neumann found that Antisocial Personality Disorder consists of 4 factors:

  • Superficial charm, grandiosity, pathological lying and manipulation

  • Callousness, lack of remorse, shallowness and failure to accept responsibility

  • Impulsivity, sensation seeking and irresponsibility

  • General rule breaking

Like all personality disorders, Antisocial Personality Disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behavior pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behavior pattern tends to be stable. It may not cause subjective distress, but does cause problems in social performance.
    Warning: Self-diagnosis of this disorder is usually inaccurate. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment. However, if no such professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

Course

The course of Antisocial Personality Disorder is chronic. However, this disorder often improves in middle age.

Complications

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder have an increased risk of dying prematurely by violent means (e.g., suicide, accidents, and homicide). Prolonged unemployment, interrupted education, broken marriages, irresponsible parenting, homelessness, and frequent incarceration are common with this disorder.

Comorbidity

Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder.

    Non-Personality Disorders

            Neurodevelopmental Disorders:       Anxiety Disorders:       Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders:
      • Gambling and other impulse control disorders
            Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders:
      • Substance use disorders
            Depressive Disorders:
      • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthmia); substance/medication-induced depressive disorder
            Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders:
      • Somatic symptom disorder

    Personality Disorders

Associated Laboratory Findings

No laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.

Prevalence

The prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder in the general population is 0.2% to 3%. It is seen in 3% to 30% of psychiatric outpatients. The prevalence is greater than 70% in prison populations and in substance abuse clinics. The male to female ratio is 3:1 (but females may be underdiagnosed).

Outcome

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder don't see their behavior as being abnormal; hence they don't see the necessity of changing their personality. They have a callous disregard for the harm they are causing to others. Usually their lawless and impulsive behavior persists into middle age; then their life of crime usually decreases after they have lost almost everything and "burned all their bridges". Unfortunately, Antisocial Personality Disorder can persist for a lifetime if its criminal behavior is never punished.

Familial Pattern

The first-degree biological relatives of individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder have an increased risk of having Antisocial Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorders if they are male, and Somatic Symptom Disorder if they are female. Both adopted and biological children of parents with Antisocial Personality Disorder have an increased risk of developing Antisocial Personality Disorder, Somatic Symptom Disorder, and Substance Use Disorders. Adopted-away children resemble their biological parents more than their adoptive parents, but the adoptive family may decrease the risk of developing this disorder. This disorder is often associated with low socioeconomic status and urban settings.

Controlled Clinical Trials Of Therapy

Click here for a list of all the controlled clinical trials of therapy for this disorder.

Psychotherapy

Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment. Usually, apart from treatment for their substance use disorders, their only contact with a therapist is either to have a Court ordered psychiatric assessment, or to try to manipulate the therapist into giving them an undeserved disability pension, insurance compensation, or favorable psychiatric assessment for some upcoming civil legal battle. There is insufficient evidence to justify using any psychological intervention for adults with this disorder. Three therapies (contingency management with standard maintenance; CBT with standard maintenance; 'Driving Whilst Intoxicated program' with incarceration) appeared effective, compared to the control condition, in decreasing substance misuse. However no study has reported improving the core features of Antisocial Personality Disorder. Anger management treatment in prison was found to increase verbal aggression post-treatment.

Pharmacotherapy

There are no medications specifically approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat antisocial personality disorder. There are no randomized controlled trials that show that any pharmaceutical treatment is effective in improving the core features of Antisocial Personality Disorder. However, there is some evidence that nortriptyline (an antidepressant) can help people with antisocial personality disorder to reduce their misuse of alcohol. There is conflicting evidence that anticonvulsants can help to reduce the intensity of impulsive aggressive acts in people with antisocial personality disorder. Vitamins and dietary supplements are ineffective for all Personality Disorders.

Prevention

Childhood prevention: The most intensive psychosocial intervention ever fielded was a multi-component prevention program targeting antisocial behavior. The intervention identified children at school entry and provided intervention services over a 10-year period. This study concluded that these intensive youth prevention services did not significantly reduce antisocial behavior. Fortunately, this disorder often slowly improves after age 40.

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Dissocial [Antisocial] Personality Disorder F60.2 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization

Dissocial [antisocial] personality disorder is characterized by disregard for social obligations, and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. There is gross disparity between behavior and the prevailing social norms. Behavior is not readily modifiable by adverse experience, including punishment. There is a low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence; there is a tendency to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing the patient into conflict with society.

ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria (For Research) And IPDE Questions:

    A. The general criteria of personality disorder must be met:

    • Evidence that the individual's characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior deviate markedly as a whole from the culturally expected and accepted range (or 'norm').

    • The deviation must manifest itself pervasively as behavior that is inflexible, maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional across a broad range of personal and social situations (i.e. not being limited to one specific 'triggering' stimulus or situation).

    • There is personal distress, or adverse impact on the social environment, or both, clearly attributable to the behavior.

    • There must be evidence that the deviation is stable and of long duration, having its onset in late childhood or adolescence.

    • The deviation cannot be explained as a manifestation or consequence of other adult mental disorders.

    • Organic brain disease, injury, or dysfunction must be excluded as possible cause of the deviation.

    B. At least three of the following must be present:

    • Callous unconcern for the feelings of others.
        (E.g., "I will lie to or con someone if it serves my purpose.")

    • Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations.
        (E.g., "At times I have refused to hold a job, even when I was expected to.")

    • Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty to establish them.
        (E.g., "I haven't had close relationships that have lasted a long time.")

    • Very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence.
        (E.g., "I lose my temper and get into physical fights.")

    • Incapacity to experience guilt, or to profit from adverse experience, particularly punishment.
        (E.g., "I don't usually feel bad when I hurt or mistreat someone.")

    • Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing the subject into conflict with society.
        (E.g., "Other people have made it hard for me to stay out of trouble.")

    • Comments: Persistent irritability and the presence of conduct disorder during childhood and adolescence, complete the clinical picture but are not required for the diagnosis.

Antisocial Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association

Current Diagnostic Criteria:

An individual diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder needs to meet all of the following criteria:

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by at least 3 of the following:

    • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.

    • Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.

    • Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead.

    • Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.

    • Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.

    • Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.

    • Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

  • There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15 years. A conduct disorder is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the presence of three of the following 15 criteria from any of the categories below:

    • Aggression to People and Animals

    • Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others.

    • Often initiates physical fights.

    • Has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., a bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, gun).

    • Has been physically cruel to people.

    • Has been physically cruel to animals.

    • Has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, armed robbery).

    • Has forced someone into sexual activity.

    • Destruction of Property

    • Has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage.

    • Has deliberately destroyed others' property (other than by fire setting).

    • Deceitfulness or Theft

    • Has broken into someone else's house, building, or car.

    • Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (i.e., "cons" others).

    • Has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g., shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery).

    • Serious Violations of Rules

    • Often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13 years.

    • Has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home, or once without returning for a lengthy period.

    • Is often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years.

  • This enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior must deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture.

  • This enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

  • This enduring pattern leads to clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

  • The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode.

Proposed New Diagnostic Criteria:

Typical features of antisocial personality disorder are a failure to conform to lawful and ethical behavior, and an egocentric, callous lack of concern for others, accompanied by deceitfulness, irresponsibility, manipulativeness, and/or risk taking. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

A. Moderate or greater impairment in personality functioning, manifested by characteristic difficulties in two or more of the following four areas:

  • Identity:
    Egocentrism; self-esteem derived from personal gain, power, or pleasure.

  • Self-direction:
    Goal setting based on personal gratification; absence of prosocial internal standards, associated with failure to conform to lawful or culturally normative ethical behavior.

  • Empathy:
    Lack of concern for feelings, needs, or suffering of others; lack of remorse after hurting or mistreating another.

  • Intimacy:
    Incapacity for muturally intimate relationships, as exploitation is a primary means of relating to others, including by deceit and coercion; use of dominance or intimidation to control others.

B. Six or more of the following seven pathological personality traits:

    Antagonism

  • Manipulativeness:
    Frequent use of subterfuge to influence or control others; use of seduction, charm, glibness, or ingratiation to achieve one's ends.

  • Callousness:
    Lack of concern for feelings or problems of others; lack of guilt or remorse about the negative or harmful effects of one's actions on others.

  • Deceitfulness:
    Dishonesty and fraudulence; misrepresentation of self; embellishment or fabrication when relating events.

  • Hostility:
    Persistent or frequent angry feelings; anger or irritability in response to minor slights and insults; mean, nasty, or vengeful behavior.

  • Disinhibition

  • Reckless Risk Taking:
    Engagement in dangerous, risky, and potentially self-damaging activities, unnecessarily and without regard for consequences; boredom proneness and thoughtless initiation of activities to counter boredom; lack of concern for one's limitations and denial of the reality of personal danger.

  • Impulsivity:
    Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; difficulty establishing and following plans.

  • Irresponsibility:
    Disregard for - and failure to honor - financial and other obligations or commitments; lack of respect for - and lack of follow-through on - agreements and promises.

Empirically Derived Taxonomy for Personality Diagnosis: Antisocial-Psychopathic Personality Disorder

(This section uses an alternative classification system to that of the American Psychiatric Association)

How Antisocial Personality Disorder Differs From Other Personality Disorders

Summary statement: Individuals with Antisocial-Psychopathic Personality exploit others, experience little remorse for harm or injury they cause to others, and have poor impulse control.

These individuals:
  • Take advantage of others, lie or deceive, and are manipulative.
  • Show a reckless disregard for the rights, property, or safety of others.
  • Lack empathy for other people's needs and feelings.
  • Experience little remorse for harm or injury they cause.
  • Appear impervious to consequences and seem unable or unwilling to modify their behavior in response to threats or consequences.
  • Generally lack psychological insight and blame their difficulties on other people or circumstances.
  • Often appear to gain pleasure by being sadistic or aggressive toward others, and they may attempt to dominate significant others through intimidation or violence.
  • Are impulsive, seek thrills, novelty, and excitement, and require high levels of stimulation.
  • Are unreliable and irresponsible and may fail to meet work obligations or honor financial commitments.
  • May engage in antisocial behavior, including unlawful activities, substance abuse, or interpersonal violence.
  • May repeatedly convince others of their commitment to change, leading others to think "this time is really different," only to revert to their previous maladaptive behavior.

How Antisocial Personality Disorder Differs From A Healthy Personality

Characteristics of a healthy vs. unhealthy personality:

In This Disorder:       Severe Problem       Moderate Problem       Mild or No Problem


          Cooperation (Agreeableness):

      People with a healthy personality have:
    • Trust:
      Trusting the loyalty and good intentions of significant others (e.g., family, friends).
    • Forgiveness:
      Forgiving other peoples' mistakes; not bearing grudges or seeking revenge.
    • Gratitude:
      Being thankful for the good things in life; expressing thanks to others.
    • Humility:
      Being humble (not arrogant, boastful or excessively proud).
    • Cooperation And Generosity:
      Cooperating with others and doing a fair share of the work; unselfishly helping others.
    • Kindness:
      Being a kind, considerate, loving person; feeling another's suffering & wanting to alleviate it.

    • People with an unhealthy personality have:
    • Callousness:
      Lack of concern for feelings or problems of others; lack of guilt or remorse about the negative or harmful effects of one's actions on others; aggression; sadism.
    • Grandiosity:
      Exaggerated sense of self-importance; feelings of entitlement, either overt or covert; self-centeredness; firmly holding to the belief that one is better than others; condescension toward others.
    • Manipulativeness:
      Frequent use of subterfuge to influence or control others; use of seduction, charm, glibness, or ingratiation to achieve one's ends.
    • Hostility:
      Persistent or frequent angry feelings; anger or irritability in response to minor slights and insults; mean, nasty, or vengeful behavior.
    • Suspiciousness:
      Expectations of - and heightened sensitivity to - signs of interpersonal ill-intent or harm; doubts about loyalty and fidelity of others; feelings of persecution.

          Justice (Conscientiousness):

      People with a healthy personality have:
    • Respect:
      Treating others with respect and making them feel appreciated.
    • Responsibility:
      Being reliable and careful; being able to accept blame, heed correction and make amends.
    • Honesty:
      Not lying, stealing or cheating.
    • Caution:
      Thinking carefully before acting or speaking; being cautious.
    • Moderation:
      Setting realistic goals; accepting "good enough" rather than demanding perfection.
    • Work-Life Balance:
      Maintaining a proper balance between work and the rest of life.
    • Flexibility:
      Willingness to try new things; ability to tolerate normal disorder; taking reasonable risks.

    • People with an unhealthy personality have:
      Low Conscientiousness:
    • Deceitfulness:
      Dishonesty and fraudulence; misrepresentation of self; embellishment or fabrication when relating events.
    • Irresponsibility:
      Disregard for - and failure to honor - financial and other obligations or commitments; lack of respect for - and lack of follow-through on - agreements and promises.
    • Reckless Risk Taking:
      Engagement in dangerous, risky, and potentially self-damaging activities, unnecessarily and without regard for consequences; boredom proneness and thoughtless initiation of activities to counter boredom; lack of concern for one's limitations and denial of the reality of personal danger.
    • Impulsivity:
      Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; difficulty establishing and following plans; a sense of urgency and self-harming behavior under emotional distress.

    • Extreme Conscientiousness:
    • Rigid Perfectionism:
      Rigid insistence on everything being flawless, perfect, and without errors or faults, including one's own and others' performance; sacrificing of timeliness to ensure correctness in every detail; believing that there is only one right way to do things; difficulty changing ideas and/or viewpoint; preoccupation with details, organization and order.
    • Perseveration:
      Persistence at tasks long after the behavior has ceased to be functional or effective; continuance of the same behavior despite repeated failures.

          Wisdom (Openness To Experience):

      People with a healthy personality have:
    • Lucidity:
      Ability to see things clearly, rationally, and sanely.
    • Intelligence:
      Normal capacity for reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, and learning from experience.

    • People with an unhealthy personality have:
    • Cognitive and Perceptual Dysregulation:
      Odd or unusual thought processes; vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped thought or speech; odd sensations in various sensory modalities.
    • Unusual Beliefs And Experiences:
      Thought content and views of reality that are viewed by others as bizarre or idiosyncratic; unusual experiences of reality.
    • Eccentricity:
      Odd, unusual, or bizarre behavior or appearance; saying unusual or inappropriate things.

          Self-Control (Extraversion):

      People with a healthy personality have:
    • Sociability:
      Being gregarious, energetic and outgoing; interested in social contacts and activities.
    • Emotional Expressiveness:
      Normal range of emotional experience and expression.

    • People with an unhealthy personality have:
      High Extraversion
    • Attention Seeking:
      Excessive attempts to attract and be the focus of the attention of others; admiration seeking.
    • Inappropriate Seductiveness:
      Inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior.

    • Low Extraversion
    • Withdrawal:
      Preference for being alone to being with others; reticence in social situations; avoidance of social contacts and activity; lack of initiation of social contact.
    • Intimacy Avoidance:
      Avoidance of close or romantic relationships, interpersonal attachments, and intimate sexual relationships.
    • Diminished Emotional Expression:
      Little reaction to emotionally arousing situations; constricted emotional experience and expression; indifference or coldness.
    • Ahedonia:
      Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life's experiences; deficits in the capacity to feel pleasure or take interest in things.

          Courage (vs. Low Emotional Stabillity):

      People with a healthy personality have:
    • Courage:
      Ability to confidently face adversity and enjoy challenges.
    • Serenity:
      Being calm, peaceful, or tranquil.
    • Happiness:
      Feelings of contentment and pleasure in accomplishing things; optimism about the future; feelings of adequate self-worth.
    • Independence:
      Ability to function without being dependent on others.
    • Assertiveness:
      Ability to assert oneself effectively and appropriately when necessary.

    • People with an unhealthy personality have:
    • Anxiousness:
      Intense feelings of nervousness, tenseness, or panic, often in reaction to social situations; worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities; feeling fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty; fears of embarrassment; fears of falling apart or losing control.
      • Social Anxiety:
        Marked fear or anxiety when exposed to potentially humiliating or embarrassing social situations.
      • Separation Anxiety:
        Fears of rejection by - and/or separation from - significant others.
    • Emotional Lability:
      Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or out of proportion to events and circumstances.
    • Loneliness:
      Frequent feelings of being left out or isolated from others, or feeling a lack of companionship.
    • Depressed Mood:
      Frequent feelings of being down, miserable, and/or hopeless; difficulty recovering from such moods; pessimism about the future; pervasive shame, feelings of inferior self-worth; thoughts of suicide and suicidal behavior.
    • Dependency:
      Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of one's life; goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others.
    • Submissiveness:
      Marked tendency to submit or yield to the authority of another; unresistingly obedient.

Psychopaths:

A diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder has limited predictive validity with respect to institutional adjustment, response to treatment, and behavior following release from prison. In contrast, the diagnosis of being a psychopath has considerable predictive validity with respect to treatment outcome, institutional adjustment, recidivism and violence (Hare 1991). Dr. Robert D. Hare's "Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)" is the psycho-diagnostic tool most commonly used to assess psychopaths. On this checklist, psychopaths have the majority of the following traits:

  • Selfish, callous and remorseless use of others:
    • Glib and superficial charm
    • Grandiose (exaggeratedly high) estimation of self
    • Pathological lying
    • Cunning and manipulative
    • Lack of remorse or guilt
    • Shallow affect (superficial emotional responsiveness)
    • Callousness and lack of empathy
    • Failure to accept responsibility for own actions

  • Chronically unstable, antisocial and socially deviant lifestyle:
    • Need for stimulation (an excessive need for new, exciting stimulation and risk-taking)
    • Parasitic lifestyle (exploitative financial dependence on others)
    • Poor behavioral control (frequent verbal abuse and inappropriate expressions of anger)
    • Sexual promiscuity (numerous brief, superficial sexual affairs)
    • Lack of realistic long-term goals
    • Impulsivity
    • Irresponsibility (repeated failure to fulfill or honor commitments and obligations)
    • Early behavior problems (before age 13)
    • Juvenile delinquency (criminal behavioral problems between the ages of 13-18)
    • Revocation of conditional release (violating parole or other conditional release)
    • Many short-term marital relationships (lack of commitment to a long-term relationship)
    • Criminal versatility (diversity of criminal offenses, whether or not the individual has been arrested or convicted)







How To Spot A Psychopath

Main Characteristics of a Psychopath

  • Narcissistic Traits:
    • lack of empathy (lacks understanding and appropriate response to another person's feelings)
    • grandiose sense of self-worth
    • cunning and manipulative
  • Antisocial Traits:
    • lack of remorse or guilt (callous disregard for the rights of others)
    • emotional poverty (limited range or depth of feelings)
    • impulsivity
    • irresponsibility
    • promiscuous sexual behavior


Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?

The ancient Greek civilization lasted approximately 3,000 years (16th century BC to 15th century AD). The ancient Greek philosophers taught that the 5 pillars of their civilization were: cooperation, justice, wisdom, self-control, and courage. Research has shown that these 5 themes are basic dimensions of personality disorders and other mental disorders. This website uses these 5 major dimensions of human behavior to describe all mental disorders. [Whenever possible, the more easily understood Greek concept (e.g., "Cooperation") is used instead of the "Big 5" personality dimension name (e.g., "Agreeableness")]

    What Are The 5 major dimensions of human behavior?

    ANCIENT GREEK CONCEPT "BIG 5" PERSONALITY TRAITS
    Cooperation Agreeableness
    Justice Conscientiousness
    Wisdom Openness
    Self-Control Extraversion (vs. Introversion)
    Courage Emotional Stability

    Cooperation (Agreeableness):

      Sympathetic, Warm (High Agreeableness):
      Sympathetic, warm, kind, cooperative, altruistic, empathetic, polite.
      Critical, Quarrelsome (Low Agreeableness):
      Unsympathetic, cold, rude, harsh.

    Cooperation is dependent upon individuals acting in agreement. Agreeable, cooperative individuals are sympathetic, warm, kind, altruistic, empathetic, and polite. Disagreeable, uncooperative individuals are unsympathetic, cold, rude, and harsh (e.g., Paranoid Personality Disorder). [Research in neuroscience has shown that cooperation (the "Big 5" personality trait of "agreeableness") covaried with volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals.]

    Justice (Conscientiousness):

      Dependable, Self-disciplined (High Conscientiousness):
      Organized, efficient, systematic, practical, industrious, diligent, constrained.
      Disorganized, Careless (Low Conscientiousness):
      Disorganized, sloppy, inefficient, careless.

    In life there is a constant struggle between good and evil; hence there is a need for justice. Justice means neither to harm nor to be harmed. Human behavior is governed by conscience - an inner sense of what is right or wrong - which guides conscientious behavior. Conscientious, careful, responsible people follow the rules, conform to norms, think before acting, and control their impulses. They set clear goals and pursue them with determination; they are reliable and hard-working. Unconscientious, careless, irresponsible people are disorderly, frivolous, and undependable. They lack clear life goals and the motivation to purse them (e.g., Antisocial Personality Disorder). In contrast to the chaotic, undercontrolled life of individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder, is the highly ordered, overcontrolled life of individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are overly conscientious, perfectionistic, scrupulous and meticulous. [Research in neuroscience has shown that justice (the "Big 5" personality trait of "conscientiousness") covaried with volume in lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior.]

    Wisdom (Openness):

      Open To New Experiences, Complex (High Openness):
      Creative, imaginative, philosophical, intellectual, complex, curious.
      Conventional, Uncreative (Low Openness):
      Uncreative, unintellectual.

    Individuals that are open to new experience are creative, imaginative, philosophical, intellectual, complex, and curious. They find it easy to think in symbols and abstractions (hence excel in mathematical, logical or geometric thinking). They often excel in literature, music composition or performance, or in the visual or performing arts. They love to play with ideas, and debate intellectual issues. Individuals that are conventional and uncreative are conforming and prefer dealing with either people or things rather than ideas. They have narrow, commonplace interests, and they prefer the plain and obvious over the complex and subtle. Their minds are closed and resistant to change. Wisdom can be impaired by physical brain disorders (that characteristically present with distractibility, confusion, irrationality, developmental delay and/or multiple cognitive deficits).

    Self-Control (Extraversion):

      Extraverted, Enthusiastic (High Extravertion):
      Talkative, extroverted, bold, energetic, emotionally positive, enthusiastic, sociable, assertive.
      Reserved, Quiet (Low Extraversion = Introversion):
      Shy, quiet, bashful, withdrawn.

    People differ in how gregarious they are in social groups. Extraverted, enthusiastic people are talkative, bold, energetic, emotionally positive, and sociable. Whereas reserved, quiet people (introverts) are aloof and lack the exuberance, energy, and activity of the talkative, assertive extraverts. Introverts tend to be low-key, deliberate, and disengaged from the social world. Self-control is required to avoid being too gregarious (e.g., Histrionic Personality Disorder) or too quiet and reserved (e.g., Avoidant Personality Disorder). [Research in neuroscience has shown that self-control (the "Big 5" personality trait of "extraversion") covaried with volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region involved in processing reward information.]

    Courage (vs. Low Emotional Stabillity)

      Calm, Emotionally Stable (Emotional Stability):
      Unenvious, relaxed.
      Anxious, Easily Upset (Low Emotional Stability):
      Moody, jealous, tempermental, envious, touchy, fretful, emotionally negative, anxious, vulnerable, irritable.

    Human survival requires the right balance between courage and fear. Individuals with an optimal level of courage are stable and calm; they do not emotionally over-react to stress. Individuals with too much courage, and not enough fear, become reckless, and this usually leads to failure. Events or genetics can rob individuals of their courage. Thus they over-react emotionally to stress, and their fear or despair usually leads to failure. Low levels of emotional stability are seen in Anxiety Disorders and Depressive Disorders. [Research in neuroscience has shown that low courage (the "Big 5" personality trait of low "emotional stability") covaried with volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative affect.]

    What Major Dimensions of Psychopathology Are Abnormal In Antisocial Personality Disorder?

    Antisocial Personality Disorder:
          Cooperation (Critical, Quarrelsome):
      Violence Before Age 15:
    • Often bullied, threatened, or intimidated others
    • Often initiated physical fights
    • Used a potentially lethal weapon in a fight
    • Had been physically cruel to people
    • Had been physically cruel to animals

    • Violence After Age 15:
    • Often was irritable and aggressive
          Justice (Disorganized, Careless):
      Irresponsibility Before Age 15:
    • Had stolen while confronting a victim
    • Sexually abused someone
    • Deliberately engaged in potentially serious fire-setting
    • Deliberately destroyed others' property (other than fire setting)
    • Broke into someone else's house, building, or car
    • Often lied
    • Often stole (without confrontation of a victim)
    • Ran away from home
    • Before age 13, often stayed out at night despite parental prohibitions
    • Before age 13, often was truant from school

    • Irresponsibility After Age 15:
    • Often broke the law
    • Often lied, used aliases, or conned others
    • Often was impulsive or failed to plan ahead
    • Often had reckless disregard for safety of self or others
    • Often was irresponsible at work or with money
    • Often lacked remorse

Antisocial Traits

In adulthood, these individuals become more antagonistic. They show an exaggerated sense of self-importance, insensitivity towards the feelings and needs of others, and callous exploitation of others. Their increased manipulativeness, callousness, deceitfulness, and hostility repeatedly puts them at odds with other people.

Impulsiveness vs. Conscientiousness

In adulthood, individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder become more impulsive. They show increased risk taking, impulsivity, and irresponsibility. They want immediate gratification, and act without consideration of future consequences. Reckless impulsivity is the opposite of conscientiousness. Research has shown that conscientiousness (or "grit") is even more important than intelligence in predicting scholastic and vocational success.

    Disinhibition
    • Need for stimulation/proneness to boredom
    • Impulsivity
    • Promiscuous sexual behavior
    • Irresponsibility

Lack Of Social Skills In Personality Disorders

There are certain social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder lack the essential social skills of respect, responsibility, and honesty. They lack cooperation/generosity and kindness (that are also lacking in individuals with narcissistic personality disorder); and they lack chastity and caution (that are also lacking in individuals with histrionic personality disorder). They lack control of anger (that is also lacking in individuals with borderline personality disorder).

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In Antisocial Personality Disorder

    SOCIAL SKILL ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY NORMAL
    Respect Disrespect for others Treating others with respect and making them feel appreciated
    Responsibility Irresponsibility Being reliable and careful; being able to accept blame, heed correction and make amends
    Honesty Dishonesty Not lying, stealing or cheating
    Control of Anger Hostility Absence of anger or irritability in response to minor slights; absence of mean or vengeful behavior
    Cooperation or Generosity Stirring up animosity between people; being manipulative or greedy Cooperating with others and doing a fair share of the work; unselfishly helping others
    Kindness Callousness Being a kind, considerate, loving person; feeling anotherís suffering & wanting to alleviate it
    Chastity Desire for casual or illicit sex Avoidance of casual sex ("one night stands") AND absence of intense desire for illicit sex
    Caution Harmful impulsiveness Thinking carefully before acting or speaking; being cautious

Antisocial, narcissistic, and paranoid personality disorders are closely related and can be thought of as forming an "low agreeableness cluster" of personality disorders. On personality testing, these three disorders all have low Agreeableness scores. All of history's worst tyrants had this "tyrant's triade" of antisocial + narcissistic + paranoid personality disorders.

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In The "Low Agreeableness Cluster" Of Personality Disorders

    PERSONALITY DISORDER LACKING LACKING LACKING
    Antisocial Personality Respect (instead has disrespect) Responsibility (instead has irresponsibility) Honesty (instead has dishonesty)
    Narcissistic Personality Humility (instead has arrogance) Cooperation or generosity (had being manipulative or greedy) Kindness (instead has callousness)
    Paranoid Personality Trust (instead has suspiciousness) Forgiveness (instead has bearing grudges) Gratitude (instead has feeling victimized)

Diagnosing Antisocial Personality Disorder The Way They Did It 2,000 Years Ago

Stoicism was a school of ancient Greek philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. Stoic philosophers taught that the best way to judge an individual was not by what the person said, but by how that person behaved. Over the centuries, Stoicism became very popular and even an emperor of Rome, Marcus Aurelius (AD 121-180), became a popular Stoic philosopher. The Stoic philosophers developed the following daily meditation (which I have taken the liberty of modernizing). Even though the ancient Stoic philosophers lacked our modern diagnostic classification system; they were able to use their philosophical framework to detect the character defects in many personality disorders.

    Items On The Stoic "Daily Meditation" Which Are Abnormal In Antisocial Personality Disorder

    (MODERNIZED) STOIC DAILY MEDITATION ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER
    Cooperation:
    Today, how will I show gratitude? Defective (disrespect for others)
    Today, how will I show compassion? Defective (callousness: unsympathetic, cold, rude, harsh)
    Justice:
    Today, how will I neither harm nor be harmed? Defective (dishonest, is interpersonally exploitative)
    Today, what wrong should I right? Defective (doesn't make amends)
    Wisdom:
    Today, how will I achieve peace, purpose, and happiness? Defective (greedy, hostile)
    Today, how will I stop repeating my mistakes? Defective (lacks insight; keeps making same mistakes)
    Self-Control:
    Today, how will I show self-control and moderation in all things? Defective (reckless risk taking, impulsive, promiscuous)
    Today, what promises must I keep, and what duties must I perform? Defective (manipulative, irresponsible)
    Courage:
    Today, what fears must I face? Normal
    Today, how will I achieve my goals and overcome adversity? Normal

    How Would The Ancient Stoic Philosophers Interpret The "Low Agreeableness Cluster" Of Personality Disorders?

    The Stoic "Daily Meditation" identifies that individuals with Antisocial, Borderline, Narcissistic and Histrionic Personality Disorders all share two major character defects. Using this ancient Greek philosophical framework, individuals with these disorders all have problems with justice and self-control. They callously harm others and, in addition, those with Borderline Personality Disorder harm themselves (e.g., self-mutilation and suicide). Individuals with these disorders also have poor self-control (e.g., hostility, irresponsibility, stormy social life - in Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders; or excessive admiration-seeking or attention-seeking in Narcissistic and Histrionic Personality Disorder).

    The 10 Commandments of the Bible's Old Testament Focused on the Character Defects of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    In Biblical times, individuals having Antisocial Personality Disorder would have broken all of the Bible's 10 Commandments. In fact, the Bible's 10 Commandments seem to solely prohibit the harmful behaviors seen in Antisocial Personality Disorder, and not the harmful behaviors seen in other Personality Disorders.

      The 10 Commandments of the Bible's Old Testament

      1. You shall have no other gods before Me.
      2. You shall not make idols.
      3. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain.
      4. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
      5. Honor your father and your mother.
      6. You shall not murder.
      7. You shall not commit adultery.
      8. You shall not steal.
      9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
      10. You shall not covet.

The "Big 5" Dimensions of Personality and Personality Disorders

Research has shown that most human personality traits can be boiled down to five broad dimensions of personality, regardless of language or culture. These "Big 5" dimensions of personality are: I - Extraversion; II - Agreeableness; III - Conscientiousness; IV - Emotional Stability; V - Intellect or Openness. There are two free online personality tests that assess your personality in terms of the "Big 5" dimensions of personality. The following diagram shows the relationship between the "Big 5" dimensions of personality and personality disorders. This diagram is based on the research of Sam Gosling, Jason Rentfrow, and Bill Swann, Gerard Saucier, Colin G. DeYoung, and Douglas Samuel and Thomas Widiger.


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"Big-5" Personality Dimension of Low Agreeableness

In personality testing, individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder often have a low Agreeableness test score.


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"High Agreeableness"

The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "high agreeableness" is associated with:
  • Feel others' emotions
  • Inquire about others' well-being
  • Sympathize with others' feelings
  • Take an interest in other people's lives
  • Like to do things for others
  • Respect authority
  • Hate to seem pushy
  • Avoid imposing my will on others
  • Rarely put people under pressure

"Low Agreeableness"

The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "low agreeableness" is associated with:
  • Am not interested in other people's problems
  • Can't be bothered with other's needs
  • Am indifferent to the feelings of others
  • Take no time for others
  • Don't have a soft side
  • Believe that I am better than others
  • Take advantage of others
  • Insult people
  • Seek conflict
  • Love a good fight
  • Am out for my own personal gain

Other Personality Disorders With Low Agreeableness Scores

Low agreeableness scores are also seen in individuals with Narcissistic or Paranoid Personality Disorders.

Cleopatra Seducing Caesar and Mark Antony


In the "low agreeableness cluster" (of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Disorders), the males tend to be like Caesar and have more antisocial/psychopathic behaviors; whereas the females tend to be like Cleopatra and have more narcissistic behaviors. The core feature of this cluster of personality disorders is lack of empathy. These individuals seem to be unconcerned about how their actions harm or upset others.

    The Core Features Of The "Low Agreeableness Cluster" Of Personality Disorders

    • manipulativeness:
      In the past week, did you "con" or take advantage of someone?
    • callousness:
      In the past week, did you harm someone, but not care?
    • deceitfulness:
      In the past week, did you lie, steal, or cheat?
    • hostility:
      In the past week, were you actively hostile towards someone?
    • attention-seeking:
      In the past week, did you go out of your way to be the center of attention?
    • grandiosity:
      In the past week, did you treat others as if they were inferior to you?

Tyrants Have A Dangerous Combination of Personality Disorders



All of history's worst tyrants had the same combination of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Psychopathic (Antisocial) Personality Disorders.

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In History's Worst Dictators

    PERSONALITY DISORDER LACKING LACKING LACKING
    Paranoid Personality Trust (had suspiciousness) Forgiveness (had bearing grudges) Gratitude (had feeling victimized)
    Narcissistic Personality Humility (had arrogance) Cooperation or generosity (had being manipulative or greedy) Kindness (had callousness)
    Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Respect (had disrespect) Responsibility (had irresponsibility) Honesty (had dishonesty)

Given the amount of harm that these dictators created (e.g., Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Mao); it could be argued that the social skills that dictators lack are the most important of all the social skills. Thus it should come as no surprise that all of the world's religions emphasize the importance of these social skills (e.g., trust, forgiveness, gratitude, humility, cooperation, generosity, kindness, respect, responsibility, and honesty).

The Rise of a Tyrant

In the beginning, the tyrant's followers believe that the tyrant's narcissism represents a confident, "strong man" who would lead their nation to greatness. The tyrant uses his own paranoia to mobilize his followers' fears and anger toward "the enemy". Once the tyrant gains political power, his deadly psychopathic (antisocial) traits become more apparent. After gaining political power, the tyrant centralizes all political, military and economic power around himself and his cronies. The tyrant finally solidifies his power by killing all those that oppose him.

Thus narcissistic-paranoid-psychopathic individuals should never be allowed to gain political power because of the great danger that they will become tyrants.



The "Tyrant Triad" Combination of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Psychopathic (Antisocial) Personality Disorders






"Big-5" Personality Dimension of Low Conscientiousness

In personality testing, individuals with Antisocial or Borderline Personality Disorders often have a low conscientiousness test score.

"High Conscientiousness"

The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "high conscientiousness" is associated with:
  • Carry out my plans
  • Finish what I start
  • Get things done quickly
  • Always know what I am doing
  • Like order
  • Keep things tidy
  • Follow a schedule
  • Want everything to be "just right"
  • See that rules are observed
  • Want every detail taken care of

Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder have high conscientiousness scores.

"Low Conscientiousness"

The (BFAS) "Big-5" personality dimension of "low conscientiousness" is associated with:
  • Waste my time
  • Find it difficult to get down to work
  • Mess things up
  • Don't put my mind on the task at hand
  • Postpone decisions
  • Am easily distracted
  • Leave my belongings around
  • Am not bothered by messy people
  • Am not bothered by disorder
  • Dislike routine
The personality dimension of conscientiousness appears to measure order and rule-keeping (e.g., Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder) vs. chaos and rule-breaking (e.g., Antisocial Personality Disorder).

Order and Rule-Keeping


Chaos and Rule-Breaking


A Good Life (High Agreeableness and High Conscientiousness)

How does one live a good life?

One approach to answering this question is to study the behavior of individuals who live troubled lives. Could the opposite of their maladaptive personality traits define how to live a good life?

Research has shown that academic, vocational, economic, marital and social failure - plus crime - correlate highly to individuals having low scores on the Agreeableness and Conscientiousness personality dimensions. The personality disorders that have the lowest scores on the Agreeableness personality dimension are the Paranoid, Narcissistic and Antisocial Personality Disorders. The two personality disorders that have the lowest scores on the Conscientiousness personality dimension are the Antisocial and Emotionally Unstable (Borderline) Personality Disorders.

Could the opposite of the personality traits seen in Paranoid, Narcissistic, Antisocial and Emotionally Unstable (Borderline) Personality Disorder be a clue as to how to live a good life? If so, the right side of the following table would define a good life. (This table uses DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.)


    Paranoid Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Paranoid Personality Disorder
    Antagonism, Suspiciousness: Altruism, Trust:
    Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving her Does not suspect, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
    Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates Is not preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of her friends or associates
    Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her Confides in others without unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against her
    Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events Does not read hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
    Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner Does not doubt, without justification, the fidelity of her spouse or sexual partner
    Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack Does not perceive attacks on her character or reputation that are not apparent to others
    Lack Of Forgiveness: Forgiveness:
    Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights Does not bear grudges, i.e., is forgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
    Narcissistic Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    False Sense Of Superiority: Humility:
    Has a grandiose sense of self-importance Doesn't exaggerate own achievements and talents
    Is preoccupied with grandiose fantasies Has realistic goals (e.g., isn't preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love)
    Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes Doesn't show arrogant, haughty behavior or attitudes
    Feels special or high-status and wants to associate with only other high-status people Doesn't believe that she is so "special" and unique that she can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
    Requires excessive admiration Doesn't require excessive admiration
    Has a sense of entitlement Doesn't unreasonably expect especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with her expectations
    Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of her Isn't envious of others or believe that others are envious of her
    Impulsivity: Caution:
    Is interpersonally exploitative Doesn't exploit others (e.g., doesn't take advantage of others to achieve her own ends)
    Lacks empathy Shows empathy (e.g., respects the feelings and needs of others)
    Antisocial Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Antisocial Personality Disorder
    Violence: Nonviolence:
    Irritable and aggressive Good anger control
    Impulsivity: Caution:
    Lacks remorse Feels remorse when appropriate
    Breaks the law Law-abiding
    Lies, uses aliases, or cons others Honest
    Impulsive or fails to plan ahead Cautious; plans ahead
    Reckless disregard for the safety of herself or others Careful regard for the safety of herself and others
    Irresponsible at work or with money Responsible at work and with money
    Borderline (Emotionally Unstable) Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Borderline (Emotionally Unstable) Personality Disorder
    Emotional Instability: Emotional Stability:
    Rapidly shifting emotions Stable emotions
    Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger Good anger control
    Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior No suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior
    Chronic feelings of emptiness Has meaning and purpose to her life
    Impulsivity: Caution:
    Potentially self-damaging impulsivity (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating) No potentially self-damaging impulsivity
    Unstable, Intense, Chaotic Relationships: Stable Relationships:
    Unstable and intense 'love-hate' relationships Stable, close, long-lasting interpersonal relationships
    Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment Can calmly cope with real or imagined abandonment
    Markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self Stable self-image; positive sense of herself

A Bad Life (Low Agreeableness and Low Conscientiousness)

How does one live a bad life?

The following table summarizes the personality traits of individuals with Paranoid, Narcissistic, Antisocial and Emotionally Unstable (Borderline) Personality Disorder. Individuals with one or more of these four personality disorders account for most of the harm done to society. (This table uses ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.)

    The Most Socially Disruptive Personality Traits Examples
    Narcissistic Personality Traits:
    Egocentricity "I am an extraordinary person." ... "Modesty doesn't become me."
    Self-indulgence "I will never be satisfied until I get all that I deserve."
    Continuous longing for appreciation "It's very important to me to stand out, and have my achievements recognized."
    Lack of consideration for others "The weak deserve to be dominated by the strong."
    Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs "I don't react well when someone offends me."
    Persistent manipulative behavior "I find it easy to manipulate people."
    Paranoid Personality Traits:
    Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs "I don't react well when someone offends me."
    Tendency to bear grudges persistently, e.g. unforgiveness of insults, injuries or slights "I've held grudges against people for years."
    Suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous "I don't believe most people are fair and honest with me."
    A combative and tenacious sense of personal rights out of keeping with the actual situation "I fight for my rights even when it annoys people."
    Recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding sexual fidelity of spouse or sexual partner "I think my spouse (or lover) is unfaithful to me."
    Persistent self-referential attitude, associated particularly with excessive self-importance "People often make fun of me behind my back."
    Preoccupation with unsubstantiated "conspiratorial" explanations of events around the subject or in the world at large "I'm convinced there is a conspiracy behind many things that happen in the world."
    Antisocial Personality Traits:
    Callous unconcern for the feelings of others "I will lie to or con someone if it serves my purpose."
    Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations "At times I have refused to hold a job, even when I was expected to."
    Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty to establish them "I haven't had close relationships that have lasted a long time."
    Very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence "I lose my temper and get into physical fights."
    Incapacity to experience guilt, or to profit from adverse experience, particularly punishment "I don't usually feel bad when I hurt or mistreat someone."
    Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing the subject into conflict with society "Other people have made it hard for me to stay out of trouble."
    Emotionally Unstable (Borderline) Personality Traits:
    A marked tendency to quarrelsome behavior and to conflicts with others, especially when impulsive acts are thwarted or criticized "I argue or fight when people try to stop me from doing what I want."
    A marked tendency to act unexpectedly and without consideration of the consequences "I take chances and do reckless things."
    Liability to outbursts of anger or violence, with inability to control the resulting behavioural explosions "Sometimes I get so angry I break or smash things."
    Difficulty in maintaining any course of action that offers no immediate reward "I don't stick with a plan if I don't get results right away."
    Unstable and capricious mood "I'm very moody."
    Disturbances in and uncertainty about self-image, aims and internal preferences (including sexual) "I can't decide what kind of person I want to be."
    Liability to become involved in intense and unstable relationships, often leading to emotional crises "I get into very intense relationships that don't last."
    Excessive efforts to avoid abandonment "I go to extremes to try to keep people from leaving me."
    Recurrent threats or acts of self-harm "A number of times, I've threatened suicide or injured myself on purpose."
    Chronic feelings of emptiness "I often feel empty inside."

Primate Evolution

There appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:
  • The chimpanzees have evolved to be socially antagonistic, competitive, callous, and manipulative. Chimpanzees are the only primates (apart from humans) that wage organized war. Thus chimpanzee social behavior most closely mirrors the antagonistic behavior of the antisocial-narcissistic-borderline-histrionic cluster of personality disorders.

  • In contrast, the bonobos have evolved to be socially anxious, peaceful, cooperative, and loving. Thus bonobo social behavior most closely mirrors the negative emotion (anxious) behavior of the avoidant-dependent cluster of personality disorders.

  • Another separate evolutionary path was followed by the orangutans. They evolved to become solitary hermits. Thus orangutan social behavior most closely mirrors the detached behavior of the paranoid-schizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders.

Parental Behaviors Which Increase The Risk Of Developing A Personality Disorder

Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality disorder. Recent research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a personality disorder.

"Low affection" was defined as: low parental affection, low parental time spent with the child, poor parental communication with the child, poor home maintenance, low educational aspirations for the child, poor parental supervision, low paternal assistance to the child's mother, and poor paternal role fulfillment. "Harsh parenting" was defined as: harsh punishment, inconsistent maternal enforcement of rules, frequent loud arguments between the parents, difficulty controlling anger toward the child, possessiveness, use of guilt to control the child, and verbal abuse.

Setting Goals In Therapy

    Questions To Ask When Setting Goals

    In The Past Week:
    • WHO: was your problem?
    • EVENT: what did he/she do?
    • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
    • OUTCOME: did your response help?
    • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
    • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)

    Example Of Setting Goals In Interviewing A Person With Antisocial Personality Disorder

    In The Past Week:
    • WHO: was your problem?
      "My boss."

    • EVENT: what did he/she do?
      "This Tuesday, my boss threatened to fire me."

    • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
      "I didn't fight with him, but I told the other guys at work that I thought my boss was an asshole."

    • OUTCOME: did your response help?
      "No, I hate my job, but I have to put up with this shit."

    • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
      "Last weekend I partied a lot; so I was too hungover to come to work on Monday. I got my buddy to punch in my time card to make it look like I came into work on Monday. Somehow my boss found out and fired my buddy for doing that. I told my boss that I didn't know my buddy punched in my card; so I wasn't fired. There was no point in both of us getting fired just because my buddy was stupid enough to get caught."

    • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)
      "I don't think there is anything wrong with my life skills." (Patient refuses to cooperate.)


Dictators have a total disregard for the casaulties they cause in war. To them, war is just a chess game, and soldiers are just pawns to be sacrificed. For example, during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon had 3 million troops, of which 1.7 million were killed. The following movie correctly depicts how Napoleon sacrificed his troops for his own personal glory and wealth.

Waterloo (full movie)

The story of Adolf Hitler will always be a testament to how extremely dangerous a leader with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder can be. The following documentary movie is an excellent summary of the senseless slaughter of millions caused by Adolf Hitler.

Adolf Hitler (1 hour documentary)

Hate-filled, Hitler-like individuals with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder must be stopped before they ever assume power.

Certain individuals with Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder have amassed great power and wealth. These fabulously rich individuals totally neglect the poor and the starving, and care only about accumulating more wealth, fame and power - even if it means oppressing half of humanity.

Richest 62 people as wealthy as half of world's population, says Oxfam




Psychopath: Documentary


Certain Televangelists Are Excellent Examples Of Psychopaths



Case Study: Does This Man Show Any Abnormal Personality Traits?

    You Be The Judge: Any Narcissistic-Psychopathic-Paranoid Traits?

    • Narcissistic Traits:
      • grandiose sense of self-importance
      • preoccupied with grandiose fantasies
      • feels special or high-status; hence looks down on others
      • requires excessive admiration; hence lusts after fame
      • has a sense of entitlement
      • is cunning and manipulative
      • lacks empathy (can't understand another person's feelings)
      • often envious of others
      • arrogant, haughty attitudes
    • Antisocial Traits:
      • lack of guilt or remorse
      • lying or conning for personal gain
      • impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
      • irresponsibility
      • emotional poverty (limited range or depth of feelings)
      • repeated, serious unlawful behavior
      • repeated physical fights or assaults
      • reckless disregard for safety
      • promiscuous sexual behavior
    • Paranoid Traits:
      • suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
      • threatened by benign remarks/events
      • persistently bears grudges
      • misperceives insults so quick to anger
      • has unjustified doubts regarding the loyalty of his friends
      • pathologically jealous regarding his spouse



Background Information About Martin Shkreli


An Interview with Martin Shkreli


Watch Martin Shkreli dis a Wu-Tang Clan rapper in a hostile video


Watch Martin Shkreli laugh and refuse to answer questions during his testimony to Congress


Martin Shkreli Spends Hours A Day In Front Of A Webcam Waiting For Someone To Talk To Him

Stories

Rating Scales

Crime


Treatment Guidelines

Treatment




Research Topics:

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