IPD Antisocial Personality Disorder
Internet Mental Health

ANTISOCIAL (DISSOCIAL) PERSONALITY DISORDER




Onset:

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) occurs in 3.3% of the U.S. population. The highest prevalence (greater than 70%) is among most severe samples of males with alcohol use disorder and from substance abuse clinics, prisons, or other forensic settings. The core feature of this disorder is a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others.

This disorder is characterized by moderate to severe: (1) antagonism (e.g., callousness, deceitfulness, greedy manipulation, anger, disrespect for the law, aggression, physical violence) and (2) disinhibition (e.g., irresponsibility, impulsivity, reckless risk taking).

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share many personality traits.

Unlike individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) or Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), individuals with ASPD show:
  • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
  • Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
  • Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations
  • Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

Like individuals with Narcissistic or Borderline (Emotionally Unstable) Personality Disorder, individuals with ASPD:
  • Are impulsive in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating.)
  • Are irritable and aggressive, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
  • Show reckless disregard for safety of themselves or others.
  • Are interpersonally exploitative, i.e., take advantage of others to achieve their own ends.
  • Are often envious of others or believe that others are envious of them.
  • Lack empathy: are unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others. [Exception: Individuals with BPD usually show empathy.]
  • Show frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
  • Are preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love.

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder commonly:
  • Are critical of others
  • Get into power struggles
  • Blame their own failures or shortcomings on other people or circumstances

For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least 18, and must have had some symptoms of Conduct Disorder (i.e., delinquency) before age 15. This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and very disabling or harmful to others.

ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as Conduct Disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviors persist.

ASPD tends to improve somewhat when the individual reaches middle age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

Treatment:

There is insufficient (randomized controlled trial) evidence to prove the effectiveness of any psychological intervention or medication for adults with this disorder. Lacking such evidence, it would be prudent to only offer crisis intervention or short-term psychotherapy, rather than long-term psychotherapy.

Prognosis:

Antisocial Personality Disorder can persist for a lifetime. Usually their lawless and impulsive behavior persists into middle age; then these behaviors usually gradually decrease. Individuals with this disorder often are divorced, and have alcohol/drug abuse, anxiety, depression, unemployment, homelessness, and criminal behavior. However, some individuals with this disorder rise to high positions of power in society by becoming masters of manipulation and deceit.

Problems

Occupational-Economic Problems:

  • Causes significant impairment in academic, occupational and/or social functioning (however many occupationally "successful" individuals may exhibit this disorder)

  • Works poorly with others (e.g., significant periods of unemployment/bankruptcy, failure to honor financial obligations, or unethical or ciminal behavior)

Antagonistic (Antagonism):

    Violence Before Age 15:

  • Often bullied, threatened, or intimidated others

  • Often initiated physical fights

  • Used a potentially lethal weapon in a fight

  • Had been physically cruel to people

  • Violence After Age 15:

  • Often was irritable and aggressive

Disinhibited (Disinhibition):

    Irresponsibility Before Age 15:

  • Had stolen while confronting a victim

  • Sexually abused someone

  • Deliberately engaged in potentially serious fire-setting

  • Deliberately destroyed others' property (other than fire setting)

  • Broke into someone else's house, building, or car

  • Often lied

  • Often stole (without confrontation of a victim)

  • Ran away from home

  • Before age 13, often stayed out at night despite parental prohibitions

  • Before age 13, often was truant from school

  • Irresponsibility After Age 15:

  • Often broke the law

  • Often lied, used aliases, or conned others

  • Often was impulsive or failed to plan ahead

  • Often had reckless disregard for safety of self or others

  • Often was irresponsible at work or with money

  • Often lacked remorse


SAPAS Personality Screening Test

Individuals with this disorder would answer "Yes" to the red questions:

      In general, do you have difficulty making and keeping friends?
      Would you normally describe yourself as a loner?
      In general, do you trust other people? (No)
      Do you normally lose your temper easily?
      Are you normally an impulsive sort of person?
      Are you normally a worrier?
      In general, do you depend on others a lot?
      In general, are you a perfectionist?

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Click Here For Free Diagnosis

Limitations of Self-Diagnosis

Self-diagnosis of this disorder is often inaccurate. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment.

However, if no such professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

Example Of Our Computer Generated Diagnostic Assessment of President Trump



Editor's Comment

This website's focus has always been on educating the public about mental health. Our website's unique contribution has been our free, interactive psychiatric diagnosis program.

I have been a psychiatrist for 35-years, and for years I was one of four psychiatrists supervising the Vancouver General Hospital psychiatric emergency ward (which assessed more than 4,000 patients per year).

It is my psychiatric opinion that both President Trump and Vladimir Putin have three highly interrelated disorders: Naracissistic, Antisocial, and Paranoid Personality Disorders. In addition, President Trump has severe Histrionic Personality Disorder.

President Trump's Diagnosis

Antisocial Personality Disorder 301.7

This diagnosis is based on the following findings:

  • The individual is at least 18 years old

  • Since age 15, often broke the law (still present)

  • Since age 15, often lied, used aliases, or conned others (still present)

  • Since age 15, often was impulsive or failed to plan ahead (still present)

  • Since age 15, often was irritable and aggressive (still present)

  • Since age 15, often was irresponsible at work or with money (still present)

  • Since age 15, often lacked remorse (still present)

  • Before age 15, often bullied, threatened, or intimidated others (still present)

  • Before age 15, had been physically cruel to people (no longer present)

  • Before age 15, often lied (still present)

  • This disorder did not exclusively occur during the course of Schizophrenia or a Manic Episode

Treatment Goals:

  • Goal: stop law-breaking.
    If this problem persists: he may continue to perform criminal acts that are grounds for arrest (whether he is arrested or not), such as destroying property, harassing others, stealing, or pursuing illegal occupations.

  • Goal: stop deceiving and manipulating others.
    If this problem persists: he may continue to lie, use an alias, con others, or malinger.

  • Goal: stop self-defeating, impulsive behavior.
    If this problem persists: he may continue to make decisions on the spur of the moment, without considering the consequences. This may lead to (self-defeating) sudden changes of jobs, residences, or relationships.

  • Goal: stop irritable and aggressive behavior.
    If this problem persists: he may continue to get into physical fights or violence (e.g., spouse beating or child beating).

  • Goal: stop occupational and financial irresponsibility.
    If this problem persists: he may continue to be irresponsible at work, unemployed and financially irresponsible (e.g., defaulting on debts, failing to provide child support, or failing to support his family on a regular basis).

  • Goal: accept responsibility for own wrong-doing.
    If this problem persists: he may continue to blame his victims for being foolish, helpless, or deserving their fate. He may continue to minimize the harmful consequences of his actions, or he may simply indicate complete indifference.


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Diagnostic Features

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder have a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, occurring since age 15. This disorder is characterized by moderate to severe (1) antagonism (e.g., callousness, deceitfulness, greedy manipulation, anger, disrespect for the law, aggression, physical violence) and (2) disinhibition (e.g., irresponsibility, impulsivity, reckless risk taking). For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least 18, and must have had some symptoms of Conduct Disorder (i.e., delinquency) before age 15. This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community and (2) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder should not be diagnosed if its symptoms occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder, or if it is attributable to Substance Use Disorder or another medical condition.

In childhood, these individuals usually have Oppositional Defiant Disorder (towards parents and teachers) which develops into Conduct Disorder (delinquency) in adolescence. This delinquency takes the form of reckless thrill-seeking, physical violence (towards people or animals), and law-breaking. These individuals become the school bullies, thieves, vandals, and drug-dealers. Most adolescent delinquents grow out of this behavior as they enter adulthood. However, those that increase their delinquent behavior as they enter adulthood have their diagnosis changed from Conduct Disorder to Antisocial Personality Disorder.

In adulthood, individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder become more antagonistic. They show an exaggerated sense of self-importance, insensitivity towards the feelings and needs of others, and callous exploitation of others. Their increased manipulativeness, callousness, deceitfulness, and hostility repeatedly puts them at odds with other people.

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder often are divorced, have alcohol/drug abuse, anxiety, depression, unemployment, homelessness, and criminal behavior. However, some individuals with this disorder rise to high positions of power in society by becoming masters of manipulation and deceit.

Benjamin (1996, p. 197) describes the core features of those with antisocial personality disorder as consisting of:

    "a pattern of inappropriate and unmodulated desire to control others, implemented in a detached manner. There is a strong need to be independent, to resist being controlled by others, who are usually held in contempt. There is a willingness to use untamed aggression to back up the need for control or independence. The [antisocial personality] usually presents in a friendly, sociable manner, but that friendliness is always accompanied by a baseline position of detachment. He or she doesn't care what happens to self or others".

Neumann found that Antisocial Personality Disorder consists of 4 factors:

  • Superficial charm, grandiosity, pathological lying and manipulation

  • Callousness, lack of remorse, shallowness and failure to accept responsibility

  • Impulsivity, sensation seeking and irresponsibility

  • General rule breaking

Like all personality disorders, Antisocial Personality Disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behavior pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behavior pattern tends to be stable. It may not cause subjective distress, but does cause problems in social performance.

Course

The course of Antisocial Personality Disorder is chronic. However, this disorder often improves in middle age.

Complications

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder have an increased risk of dying prematurely by violent means (e.g., suicide, accidents, and homicide). Prolonged unemployment, interrupted education, broken marriages, irresponsible parenting, homelessness, and frequent incarceration are common with this disorder.

A Political Warning From Forensic Psychiatry:

The combination of Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Paranoid Personality Disorders is very dangerous. Historically, this particular combination of three personality disorders was seen in all of history's worst tyrants (e.g., Hitler, Stalin etc.). These tyrants lust for wealth, fame and power, and callously destroy everyone that opposes them. As they gain more power, they become more grandiose, power-hungry, and paranoid. If unopposed, these tyrants initiate wars, which result in the mass slaughter of innocent civilians. The tragedy is that the public is easily seduced by these tyrant's grandiose fantasies of national "greatness", and their paranoid hatred of some scapegoated minority (e.g., Jews, Muslims, immigrants, or refugees). These tyrants know that is easier to mobilize people by teaching them hatred and paranoia, than by teaching them love and forgiveness.

Comorbidity

Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder.

    Non-Personality Disorders

            Neurodevelopmental Disorders:       Anxiety Disorders:       Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders:
      • Gambling and other impulse control disorders
            Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders:
      • Substance use disorders
            Depressive Disorders:
      • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthmia); substance/medication-induced depressive disorder
            Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders:
      • Somatic symptom disorder

    Personality Disorders

Associated Laboratory Findings

No laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.

Prevalence

The prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder in the general population is 0.2% to 3%. It is seen in 3% to 30% of psychiatric outpatients. The prevalence is greater than 70% in prison populations and in substance abuse clinics. The male to female ratio is 3:1 (but females may be underdiagnosed).

Outcome

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder don't see their behavior as being abnormal; hence they don't see the necessity of changing their personality. They have a callous disregard for the harm they cause to others. Usually their lawless and impulsive behavior persists into middle age; then their life of crime usually decreases after they have lost almost everything and "burned all their bridges". Unfortunately, Antisocial Personality Disorder can persist for a lifetime if its criminal behavior is never punished.

Familial Pattern

The first-degree biological relatives of individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder have an increased risk of having Antisocial Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorders if they are male, and Somatic Symptom Disorder if they are female. Both adopted and biological children of parents with Antisocial Personality Disorder have an increased risk of developing Antisocial Personality Disorder, Somatic Symptom Disorder, and Substance Use Disorders. Adopted-away children resemble their biological parents more than their adoptive parents, but the adoptive family may decrease the risk of developing this disorder. This disorder is often associated with low socioeconomic status and urban settings.

Controlled Clinical Trials Of Therapy

Click here for a list of all the controlled clinical trials of therapy for this disorder.

There is insufficient (randomized controlled trial) evidence to prove the effectiveness of any psychological intervention or medication for adults with this disorder.

Psychotherapy

Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment. Usually, apart from treatment for their substance use disorders, their only contact with a therapist is either to have a court ordered psychiatric assessment, or to try to manipulate the therapist into giving them an undeserved disability pension, insurance compensation, or favorable psychiatric assessment for some upcoming legal battle.

Three therapies (contingency management with standard maintenance; CBT with standard maintenance; 'Driving Whilst Intoxicated program' with incarceration) appeared effective, compared to the control condition, in decreasing substance misuse. However no study has reported improving the core features of Antisocial Personality Disorder. Anger management treatment in prison was found to increase verbal aggression post-treatment.

Pharmacotherapy

There are no medications specifically approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat antisocial personality disorder. There are no randomized controlled trials that show that any pharmaceutical treatment is effective in improving the core features of Antisocial Personality Disorder. However, there is some evidence that nortriptyline (an antidepressant) can help people with antisocial personality disorder to reduce their misuse of alcohol. There is conflicting evidence that anticonvulsants can help to reduce the intensity of impulsive aggressive acts in people with antisocial personality disorder. Vitamins and dietary supplements are ineffective for all Personality Disorders.

Prevention

Childhood prevention: The most intensive psychosocial intervention ever fielded was a multi-component prevention program targeting antisocial behavior. The intervention identified children at school entry and provided intervention services over a 10-year period. This study concluded that these intensive youth prevention services did not significantly reduce antisocial behavior. Fortunately, this disorder often slowly improves after age 40.

A Dangerous Cult


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Videos

  • What Is Antisocial Personality Disorder?

  • Psychopath: Documentary

  • Are Certain Televangelists Psychopaths?

  • The Murder of Tim Bosma: The Devil Had a Name - Sometimes our media gives almost a celebrity status to some psychopaths. This 30-minute documentary does the opposite. It solely focuses on how the senseless murder of a man affected his wife. This documentary explores how evil some psychopaths are, as measured by the pain they cause to others.


  • Stories

    • Excellent Animation (for victims)

    • Antisocial Personality Disorder Stories

    • Antisocial Personality Disorder Stories - YouTube

    • Antisocial Personality Disorder Documentaries - YouTube

    • Confessions Of A Sociopath - A successful law professor and Sunday school teacher tells her story of being a sociopath.

    • "What is it like to closely know a diagnosed psychopath?"

      By Elizabeth W (from Quora.com)

      Heartbreaking. Mine, not his of course. He, for all his beauty and vivacious charm really had no heart to break. If he hadn't taken six years of my life, hundreds of thousands of dollars, comprised my health, destroyed my self confidence and self esteem I'd feel sorry for a man born without normal feelings. As it is I am just so grateful to be free of his detrimental influence.

      In the beginning I was amazed at the many things we had in common and told him secrets about myself no other person had ever heard. He accepted me and told me I was remarkable, stunning and perfect. Especially compared to his previous girlfriends which for some reason he kept bringing up. I know much more about these women than they would ever want someone to know and right now I will bet you hard cold cash that some woman is getting her ears filled with stories of me.

      I didn't fall for him right away. I thought since he was so much younger than me (more than 20 yrs) that this would be a nice summer affair and then he would move on. He had different intentions, he had found a sugar momma and he wasn't giving up. That is when the incessant wooing turned into bullying, pouting and crocodile tears. He worked on me until I gave in. He seemed to know all my fears and vulnerabilities and exploited them relentlessly. He shamed me, made me feel guilty, confused me, sex turned into something more akin to rape, he completely dominated me in a way that I find unbelievable to this day. He trained me how to treat him so I would not be punished. He would put on these terrifying acts of anger to stun me into submission. It worked. I felt that since he had had such a rotten time as a kid that I could somehow make up for it. I felt obligated for his happiness and well being. If he wasn't happy it was because of something I did or didn't do. I gave him money, let him come or go as he pleased until I couldn't stand the disrespect any longer and would kick him out. But it would never last long. My dignity was in tatters, my friends who had tried to give me good advice were now not returning my calls, I was more and more dependent on him by the day. And back he would come.

      How could he do this to a savvy broad like me? Lies. Lies and lies and more lies. A babbling fountain of lies. And when caught in a lie he couldn't lie his way out of he would turn on me and viciously verbally attack me all the while he would pace, all puffed up like he was going to hit me. I just can't emphasize enough about the psychopaths ability to deceive a person that they have chosen to be their mark.

      He never worked. He never did a dish. He was always busy doing his little scams or binge watching tv. He was bored and he became boring. He stopped asking for what he wanted and just started taking my money or credit card when I was asleep, replacing before I awoke. When confronted he would be all innocence. He totaled my new 4Runner. He got a dog when I pleaded with him not to, he once took a taxi from Seattle to Big Sur, CA. Which cost me a grand. And then he got an old girlfriend pregnant. He was a disaster. A walking talking no good son of a bitch. By now I was demanding he leave. He refused. Said this was his house too and I couldn't kick him out. And that was true, I went to the police and they said sorry, nothing they could do. I went for an eviction order. He agreed to leave. In the days before he left he stole whatever he could get away with and sold it.

      I realized that I never knew his authentic self until I remembered him telling me when we first met that he had been diagnosed as a psychopath when he was about 20 or so. I didn't think much about it then, equating it to being labeled a juvenile delinquent or something. If I had taken the time to look that up it would have saved me from a lot of hurt.

      Once I realized that he was a psychopath the scales dropped from my eyes and the spell was finally broken. I had made a big mistake and I suffer for it. I am working hard to repair broken relationships with family and friends. It will get better.

      Yes, I feel like a fool and yes, I have regrets that won't easily go away. I wasted a prime part of my life. So it goes. I just now realized that I haven't felt suicidal since he left 6 months ago. I had gotten so used to feeling that the only way I could escape the humiliation of my life was to die. I've felt stunned and am still coming out of the fog but I see sunny days ahead.

      Well I wrote as much as I could but really only scratched the surface of life with a psychopath. As far as forgiveness goes - well, I forgave myself and that seemed the most important. As far as the person who did this to me - why bother? It just feeds into their scemes. Psychopaths love people like me, those that forgive, the ones searching for closure, it plays right into their hands. He's done too much harm. He will have to look elsewhere for his forgiveness.

      Not all psychopaths are the extreme case that X was. There is a movement going on to help psychopaths be more aware of who and what they are. This is a great thing to see and I commend Jay Jones or his work on that difficult subject. Psychopaths don't ask to be born that way. But their brains are different from others. They simply do not feel what we feel or they feel it very fleetingly and shallow.

      So, in short, if you get in a relationship and feel like it's all going way too fast, that your under a spell or that someone just dropped a love bomb on you, slow them ponies down and dont let yourself get bullied or manipulated into doing or saying anything commitment wise until you know them better. A lot better.

      Edit. January '16. As time has passed and I learned more about psychopathology and other corresponding factors within the Axis II/Cluster B personality disorders it became clear to me that in addition to being parasitic low functioning psychopath this man is a malignant narcissist. And sadly, as if he didn't have enough issues to deal with, he is an alcoholic and drug abuser. That's a rough place to be.

      Two days before Christmas he was arrested for assault, no suprise there, and despite being in the mist of duping different two women, he had someone call me to ask for bail money. LOL. Like no way.

    Rating Scales

    Crime

    Worsening of Antisocial Traits With Age

    In adulthood, many individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder become more antagonistic and impulsive.

    • They show an exaggerated sense of self-importance, insensitivity towards the feelings and needs of others, and callous exploitation of others.

    • Their increased manipulativeness, callousness, deceitfulness, and hostility repeatedly puts them at odds with other people.

    • They show increased risk taking, impulsivity, and irresponsibility.

    • They want immediate gratification, and act without consideration of future consequences.

    Impulsiveness vs. Conscientiousness

    Reckless impulsivity is the opposite of conscientiousness. Research has shown that conscientiousness (or "grit") is even more important than intelligence in predicting scholastic and vocational success.

    Disinhibition
    • Need for stimulation/proneness to boredom

    • Impulsivity

    • Promiscuous sexual behavior

    • Irresponsibility

    Tyrants Have A Dangerous Combination of Personality Disorders



    All of history's worst tyrants had the same combination of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Psychopathic (Antisocial) Personality Disorders.

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In History's Worst Dictators

    PERSONALITY DISORDER LACKING LACKING LACKING
    Paranoid Personality Trust (had suspiciousness) Forgiveness (had bearing grudges) Gratitude (had feeling victimized)
    Narcissistic Personality Humility (had arrogance) Cooperation or generosity (had greedy manipulation) Compassion (had callousness)
    Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Respect (had disrespect) Responsibility (had irresponsibility) Honesty (had dishonesty)

    The Rise of a Tyrant

    In the beginning, the tyrant's followers believe that the tyrant's narcissism represents a confident, "strong man" who would lead their nation to greatness. The tyrant uses his own paranoia to mobilize his followers' fears and anger toward "the enemy". A tyrant will say and do whatever he has to in order to gain power. Once the tyrant gains power, it becomes obvious that all the tyrant ever cared about was his own fame, fortune and power. Once entrenched in power, the tyrant's deadly psychopathic (antisocial) traits become more apparent. First, the tyrant centralizes all political, military and economic power around himself and his cronies. Then the tyrant solidifies his power by imprisoning or killing all those that oppose him.

    Thus narcissistic-paranoid-psychopathic individuals should never be allowed to gain political power because of the great danger that they will become tyrants.

    Former President Obama voiced a warning about the rise of tyrants.




    Dictators have a total disregard for the casaulties they cause in war. To them, war is just a chess game, and soldiers are just pawns to be sacrificed. For example, during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon had 3 million troops, of which 1.7 million were killed. The following movies depict how Napoleon sacrificed his troops for his own personal glory and wealth.



    Waterloo (full movie)

    Napoleon (full movie)


    This second, full-length movie about Napoleon gives a better depiction of his personality. Note especially how, like all dictators, Napoleon would be diagnosed as having Narcissistic Personality Disorder using the following diagnostic criteria:

    An individual diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder needs to show at least 5 of the following criteria:

    • Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements).
      Napoleon didn't have to invade Russia. By 1812, Napoleon had conquered all of Europe except Russia. He could have stopped there, but decided to attack Russia solely to add to his conquests and to increase his glory.

    • Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love.
      Napoleon was consumed by his unlimited ambition to conquer all of Europe.

    • Believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions).
      Although of lowly birth, Napoleon always aspired to be a king and live in aristocratic splendor, associating only with European aristocracy.

    • Requires excessive admiration.
      Napoleon went to extremes to stiffle the free press and to constantly release propaganda that lionized him and his accomplishments.

    • Has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations.
      Napoleon sacrificed the lives of 1.7 million of his soldiers so that he could pursue his grandiose dream of conquering Europe.

    • Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends.
      Napoleon repeatedly exploited his wives and lovers for his own advantage.

    • Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others.
      Napoleon attacked Russia with 680,000 of his soldiers; yet only 22,000 survived this defeat. Nevertheless, Napoleon returned to Paris and tried to portray this collosal defeat as only a temporary retreat. He later raised another army and callously led them to be slaughtered at the battle of Waterloo. To Napoleon, his soldiers were just replaceable pawns in a military game of chess.

    • Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her.
      Napoleon was constantly comparing his glory to that of other European kings.

    • Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.
      Napoleon insisted on living like an European monarch, surrounded by the finest that money could buy. He showed no compassion for the poor.

    Were it not for the blind obedience of their followers, dictators could never continue their endless quest for fame, fortune and power.

    The story of Adolf Hitler will always be a testament to how extremely dangerous a leader with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder can be. The following documentary movie is an excellent summary of the senseless slaughter of millions caused by Adolf Hitler.

    Adolf Hitler (1 hour documentary)

    One Holocaust Survivor's Story (3-minute video)


    Hate-filled, Hitler-like individuals with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder must be stopped before they ever assume power.



    How They March Us To War



    The Philippines just elected a tyrant as their new president, Rodrigo Duterte. He said he has personally killed 1,700 criminals, and promises to kill 100,000 criminals in his first 6 months as President. After being elected, he said that he would give a medal to anyone who kills a drug dealer or addict.

    He has also promised that he would kill journalists - "Just because you're a journalist you are not exempted from assassination, if you're a son of a bitch." He even called the Catholic Bishops who criticized him "sons of whores".

    This Philippine tyrant was duly elected - just like Hitler was in Germany. Like Hitler, this new Philippine tyrant wants to immediately rewrite his nation's constitution.

    Just as he promised, in his first three months in office, the new Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte orchestrated the killing of more than 3,000 people. Most of the deaths were caused by police and government-sanctioned death squads.

    Philippino police now immediately execute suspected drug traffickers and addicts on the street without a trial. The Philippine President invites citizens to do likewise. Now Philippinos can freely kill their enemies as long as they claim their enemy is a drug trafficker or addict.

    In a democracy, tyrants get elected by promising to make their nation great again by restoring "law and order" (e.g., Hitler, Philippine President Duterte). The irony is that, once in power, the tyrant unleashes a rule of terror and bloodshed.

    The tragedy unfolding in the Philippines stands as a warning to not elect a leader that has the personality profile of a tyrant - namely the combination of narcissistic, paranoid and psychopathic personality disorders.

    Duterte has now accused his political enemies of having links to the drug trade. Apparently Duterte wants to have show trials which will find his political enemies guilty, so that he can have them executed. Tyrants always kill their political enemies, and Duterte is no different.

    A Good Life (Agreeableness)

    How does one live a good life?

    One approach to answering this question is to study the behavior of individuals who live troubled lives. Could the opposite of their maladaptive personality traits define how to live a good life?

    Research has shown that academic, vocational, economic, marital and social failure - plus crime - correlate highly to individuals having Antagonism (i.e., low scores on the Agreeableness personality dimension). The personality disorders that have the lowest scores on the Agreeableness personality dimension are the Paranoid, Narcissistic and Antisocial Personality Disorders.

    Could the opposite of the personality traits seen in Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Antisocial Personality Disorder be a clue as to how to live a good life? If so, the right side of the following table would define a good life. (This table uses DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.)


      Paranoid Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Paranoid Personality Disorder
      Antagonism, Suspiciousness: Altruism, Trust:
      Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving her Does not suspect, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
      Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates Is not preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of her friends or associates
      Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her Confides in others without unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against her
      Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events Does not read hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
      Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner Does not doubt, without justification, the fidelity of her spouse or sexual partner
      Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack Does not perceive attacks on her character or reputation that are not apparent to others
      Lack Of Forgiveness: Forgiveness:
      Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights Does not bear grudges, i.e., is forgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
      Narcissistic Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
      False Sense Of Superiority: Humility:
      Has a grandiose sense of self-importance Doesn't exaggerate own achievements and talents
      Is preoccupied with grandiose fantasies Has realistic goals (e.g., isn't preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love)
      Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes Doesn't show arrogant, haughty behavior or attitudes
      Feels special or high-status and wants to associate with only other high-status people Doesn't believe that she is so "special" and unique that she can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
      Requires excessive admiration Doesn't require excessive admiration
      Has a sense of entitlement Doesn't unreasonably expect especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with her expectations
      Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of her Isn't envious of others or believe that others are envious of her
      Callousness: Caring:
      Lacks empathy Shows empathy (e.g., respects the feelings and needs of others)
      Is interpersonally exploitative Doesn't exploit others (e.g., doesn't take advantage of others to achieve her own ends)
      Antisocial Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Antisocial Personality Disorder
      Violence: Nonviolence:
      Irritable and aggressive Good anger control
      Law-Breaking: Law-Abiding:
      Breaks the law Law-abiding
      Lacks remorse Feels remorse when appropriate
      Lies, uses aliases, or cons others Honest
      Irresponsible at work or with money Responsible at work and with money
      Impulsivity: Caution:
      Impulsive or fails to plan ahead Cautious; plans ahead
      Reckless disregard for the safety of herself or others Careful regard for the safety of herself and others

    A Bad Life (Antagonism)

    How does one live a bad life?

    The following table summarizes the personality traits of individuals scoring high on Antagonism - i.e., individuals with Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Individuals with one or more of these three personality disorders account for most of the harm done to society. (This table uses ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.)

      The Most Socially Disruptive Personality Traits Examples
      Narcissistic Personality Traits:
      Egocentricity "I am an extraordinary person." ... "Modesty doesn't become me."
      Self-indulgence "I will never be satisfied until I get all that I deserve."
      Continuous longing for appreciation "It's very important to me to stand out, and have my achievements recognized."
      Lack of consideration for others "I really don’t care if I make other people suffer."
      Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs "I don't react well when someone offends me."
      Persistent manipulative behavior "I find it easy to manipulate people."
      Paranoid Personality Traits:
      Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs "I don't react well when someone offends me."
      Tendency to bear grudges persistently, e.g. unforgiveness of insults, injuries or slights "I've held grudges against people for years."
      Suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous "I don't believe most people are fair and honest with me."
      A combative and tenacious sense of personal rights out of keeping with the actual situation "I fight for my rights even when it annoys people."
      Recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding sexual fidelity of spouse or sexual partner "I think my spouse (or lover) is unfaithful to me."
      Persistent self-referential attitude, associated particularly with excessive self-importance "People often make fun of me behind my back."
      Preoccupation with unsubstantiated "conspiratorial" explanations of events around the subject or in the world at large "I'm convinced there is a conspiracy behind many things that happen in the world."
      Antisocial Personality Traits:
      Callous unconcern for the feelings of others "I will lie to or con someone if it serves my purpose."
      Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations "At times I have refused to hold a job, even when I was expected to."
      Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty to establish them "I haven't had close relationships that have lasted a long time."
      Very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence "I lose my temper and get into physical fights."
      Incapacity to experience guilt, or to profit from adverse experience, particularly punishment "I don't usually feel bad when I hurt or mistreat someone."
      Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing the subject into conflict with society "Other people are always lying about me."

    Parental Behaviors Which Increase The Risk Of Developing A Personality Disorder

    Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality disorder. Research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a personality disorder.



    "Low affection" was defined as: low parental affection, low parental time spent with the child, poor parental communication with the child, poor home maintenance, low educational aspirations for the child, poor parental supervision, low paternal assistance to the child's mother, and poor paternal role fulfillment. "Harsh parenting" was defined as: harsh punishment, inconsistent maternal enforcement of rules, frequent loud arguments between the parents, difficulty controlling anger toward the child, possessiveness, use of guilt to control the child, and verbal abuse.


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    Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale (Client Version)

    Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale (Therapist Version)

    Big 5 Factors Of Mental Illness And Code For This Disorder
    (The "6th Big Factor" of Mental Health, "Physical Health", Is Coded Normal or Green)

    (Note: Recovery = symptomatic remission + full-time gainful employment + weekly contact with friends)


    Dissocial [Antisocial] Personality Disorder F60.2 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization

    Dissocial [antisocial] personality disorder is characterized by disregard for social obligations, and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. There is gross disparity between behavior and the prevailing social norms. Behavior is not readily modifiable by adverse experience, including punishment. There is a low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence; there is a tendency to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing the patient into conflict with society.

    ICD-10 International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questions

    • I've never been arrested (False).

    • I usually feel bad when I hurt or mistreat someone (False).

    • At times I've refused to hold a job, even when I was expected to.

    • I will lie or con someone if it serves my purpose.

    • I've had close friendships that lasted a long time (False).

    • I lose my temper and get into physical fights.

    • It's hard for me to stay out of trouble.

    ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria (For Research)

    (Ask yourself if President Trump meets the following diagnostic criteria:)

    A. The general criteria of personality disorder must be met:

    • Evidence that the individual's characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior deviate markedly as a whole from the culturally expected and accepted range (or 'norm').

    • The deviation must manifest itself pervasively as behavior that is inflexible, maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional across a broad range of personal and social situations (i.e. not being limited to one specific 'triggering' stimulus or situation).

    • There is personal distress, or adverse impact on the social environment, or both, clearly attributable to the behavior.

    • There must be evidence that the deviation is stable and of long duration, having its onset in late childhood or adolescence.

    • The deviation cannot be explained as a manifestation or consequence of other adult mental disorders.

    • Organic brain disease, injury, or dysfunction must be excluded as possible cause of the deviation.

    B. At least three of the following must be present:

    • Callous unconcern for the feelings of others.
        (E.g., "I will lie to or con someone if it serves my purpose.")

        Donald Trump quotes and behavior: "Trump never apologizes for any missteps or intemperate attacks and has demonstrated a remarkable lack of empathy for persons whom he has attacked, injured, or harmed. Numerous incidents, both recent and historical, establish Trump's utter lack of either accountability or empathy." [Huffington Post 08/03/2016] "Ted Cruz unleashed an awesomely honest analysis of the man who would go on to become president, describing his freakishly obvious pattern of projecting his own failings onto others. 'This man is a pathological liar,' Cruz said. 'He doesn’t know the difference between truth and lies … In a pattern that is straight out of a psychology text book, he accuses everyone of lying. Whatever lie he’s telling, at that minute he believes it … The man is utterly amoral.'" [The Guardian 3 January 2018]



        Trump's "Art Of The Deal" Co-Author: Trump Has "No Conscience"

    • Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations.
        (E.g., "At times I have refused to pay my bills, even when I was expected to.")

        Donald Trump quotes and behavior: "Trump's dishonesty in his business dealings is shocking and unprecedented for a presidential candidate. Recently, the New York Times published an investigation about Donald Trump's business dealings and discovered, inter alia, that Trump was a defendant in literally thousands of law suits primarily brought by service providers and vendors whom he failed to pay for services rendered to him or his business organizations. It is abundantly clear that failing/refusing to pay vendors is part of Trump's business model. What type of reputable businessman - - with a shred of integrity - - would conduct business in such a manner? For this, and other reasons, several major financial institutions including JPMorgan Chase and Goldman Sachs flatly refuse to do business with Trump. Indeed, Trump's reputation in business is as a scam artist; as Mitt Romney, the last candidate for president of the Republican Party, put it, Trump is a 'con man' and 'snake-oil salesman.' Readers should look no further than the allegations involved in the Trump 'University' scandal to find serious support for Romney's conclusions." [Huffington Post 08/03/2016] "Trump's plan to seize Iraq's oil: 'It's not stealing, we're reimbursing ourselves' ... 'You heard me, I would take the oil,' he said. 'I would not leave Iraq and let Iran take the oil … We’re taking back $1.5tn to reimburse ourselves'. And he insisted to ABC News that this did not amount to national theft." [The Guardian Sept. 2016]



        Russian Mob Money Helped Build Donald Trump Business Empire | The 11th Hour | MSNBC


    • Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty to establish them.
        (E.g., "I haven't had close relationships that have lasted a long time.")

        Donald Trump quotes and behavior: Donald Trump stated: "You know, I'm automatically attracted to beautiful (women) - I just start kissing them. It's like a magnet. Just kiss. I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it. You can do anything... Grab 'em by the pussy. You can do anything." [The New York Times 8 October 2016] "Trump - who has been married three times - separated from his first wife, Ivana, after his affair with Marla Maples became widely known. Trump and Ivana finalized their divorce in 1992. Trump married Maples in December 1993, two months after she gave birth to a daughter. Trump divorced Maples in 1999 and married Melania Knauss in 2005." [Washington Post] Trump was 17 years older than Marla Maples. Trump started dating Melania Knauss in 1998 [New York Daily News], and divorced his second wife in 1999. Melania Knauss was 24 years younger than Donald Trump, and 3 years older than Monica Lewinsky. Melania Knauss was a nude model before marrying Donald Trump and eventually becoming America's First Lady... The New York Times reported that President Trump had a sexual affair with a pornographic film star, Stephanie Clifford. The sexual affair started in 2006, just four months after the birth of President Trump's son, Barron, and it continued off and on for a few years. Her account was reportedly corroborated by her friend and supported by a polygraph test and her ex-husband. [New York Times 17 January 2018]

    • Very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence.



        (E.g., "I lose my temper and get into physical fights.")

        Donald Trump quotes and behavior: "At campaign rallies, Trump has encouraged his supporters to rough up protesters. 'Get 'em out of here!' he yells. 'I'd like to punch him in the face." ... Donald Trump was a bully since early childhood: "In the second grade I actually gave a teacher a black eye - I punched my music teacher because I didn't think he knew anything about music." [The Art of the Deal page 49] According to Barbara Res, who in the early 1980s served as vice president in charge of construction of Trump Tower in Manhattan, the emotional core around which Donald Trump's personality constellates is anger: 'As far as the anger is concerned, that's real for sure. He's not faking it,' she told The Daily Beast in February. 'The fact that he gets mad, that's his personality.'" [The Atlantic June 2016] "There is overwhelming evidence that Trump cannot tolerate any form of criticism no matter how slight and that he is vindictive in the extreme. The confrontations that Trump had with reporters and news organizations during the primary process, particularly his weeks-long attack on Megyn Kelly are illustrative of this point, as is his shameful, despicable confrontation with Khizr Khan and his wife." [Huffington Post 08/03/2016]

    • Incapacity to experience guilt, or to profit from adverse experience, particularly punishment.
        (E.g., "I don't usually feel bad when I hurt or mistreat someone.")

        Donald Trump quotes and behavior: "He is a serial and compulsive (pathological) liar. PolitiFact named Trump the winner of its annual 'Lie of the Year' Award in 2015 - - a competition which PolitiFact said 'was not even close,' unquestionably in reference to the fact that it rated 72% of Trump's public remarks about factual circumstances as false." [Huffington Post 08/03/2016] "An analysis by USA Today published in June 2016 found that over the previous three decades, Trump and his businesses have been involved in 3,500 legal cases in U.S. federal courts and state court, an unprecedented number for a U.S. presidential candidate. Of the 3,500 suits, Trump or one of his companies were plaintiffs in 1,900; defendants in 1,450; and bankruptcy, third party, or other in 150." [Wikipedia] "The legal actions provide clues to the leadership style the billionaire businessman would bring to bear as commander in chief. He sometimes responds to even small disputes with overwhelming legal force. He doesn’t hesitate to deploy his wealth and legal firepower against adversaries with limited resources, such as homeowners. He sometimes refuses to pay real estate brokers, lawyers and other vendors. As he campaigns, Trump often touts his skills as a negotiator. The analysis shows that lawsuits are one of his primary negotiating tools. He turns to litigation to distance himself from failing projects that relied on the Trump brand to secure investments. As USA TODAY previously reported, he also uses the legal system to haggle over his property tax bills. His companies have been involved in more than 100 tax disputes, and the New York State Department of Finance has obtained liens on Trump properties for unpaid tax bills at least three dozen times." [USA Today] "Hundreds allege Donald Trump doesn’t pay his bills" [USA Today] "Trump, companies accused of mistreating women in at least 20 lawsuits" [USA Today] "More than 100 lawsuits, disputes over taxes tied to Trump and his companies" [USA Today] "Donald Trump: Three decades 4,095 lawsuits" [USA Today] "Trump casino empire dogged by bad bets in Atlantic City" [USA Today] "Dive into Donald Trump's thousands of lawsuits" [USA Today]

    • Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing the subject into conflict with society.
        (E.g., "Other people are always lying about me.")

        Donald Trump quotes and behavior: "He took his message that 'the system' is plotting against him to an entirely new level Sunday afternoon, insisting for the first time that polling places are also 'rigged.'" ..."Trump's attack of U.S. institutions is a tactic that Trump has deployed as his poll numbers drop and as more women step forward to detail unwanted sexual advances by him. He has turned himself into the victim - repeating at each of his rallies to tens of thousands of people that 'the system' is illegitimate and untrustworthy. 'The whole system is rigged and that's why when the media does what they're doing now, that's rigging the system folks,' Trump said Friday at a rally in Charlotte, N.C. 'It's rigging the system. The election is rigged. It's rigged like you've never seen before. They're rigging the system." [NBC News Oct. 16, 2016] "The 410 People, Places and Things Donald Trump Has Insulted on Twitter: A Complete List (As of December 24, 2017)" [The New York Times]

        What republican politicians say about President Trump: Republican Senator Jeff Flake said that President Trump's use of the terms "fake news" and "enemy of the people" was "shameful" and reminiscent of words infamously used by Russian dictator Josef Stalin to describe his enemies. Senator Flake called Trump's repeated attacks on the media "repulsive" and said Trump "has it precisely backward." "Despotism is the enemy of the people, while a free press is the despot's enemy and a guardian of democracy". Senator Flake said that when President Trump calls news stories he doesn't like "fake news," he "should be the figure of suspicion, not the press." “An American president who cannot take criticism, who must constantly deflect and distort and distract, who must find someone else to blame, is charting a very dangerous path”, Senator Flake said.



        Trump's behaviour is scarily similar to modern dictators


    • Comments: Persistent irritability and the presence of conduct disorder during childhood and adolescence, complete the clinical picture but are not required for the diagnosis.

    Antisocial Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association

    Current Diagnostic Criteria:

    An individual diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder needs to meet all of the following criteria:

    • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by at least 3 of the following:

      • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.

      • Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.



        Trump Exposes Trump


      • Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead.

      • Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.

      • Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.

      • Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.

      • Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

    • There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15 years. A conduct disorder is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the presence of three of the following 15 criteria from any of the categories below:

      • Aggression to People and Animals

      • Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others.

      • Often initiates physical fights.

      • Has been physically cruel to people.

      • Has been physically cruel to animals.

      • Has stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, armed robbery).

      • Has forced someone into sexual activity.

      • Destruction of Property

      • Has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage.

      • Has deliberately destroyed others' property (other than by fire setting).

      • Deceitfulness or Theft

      • Has broken into someone else's house, building, or car.

      • Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (i.e., "cons" others).

    How Antisocial, Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder Overlap

    In the DSM-4 and DSM-5, there are certain diagnostic criteria for Antisocial, Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder that overlap, and can't differentiate between these disorders. The following table lists which diagnostic criteria poorly differentiate between these 3 personality disorders.

    DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY BORDERLINE PERSONALITY ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY
    Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating.) Present Present Present
    Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults. Present Present Present
    Reckless disregard for safety of self or others. Present Present Present
    Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends. Present Present Present
    Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her. Present Present Present
    Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others. Present . Present
    Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior. . Present Present
    Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms. Present Present .
    Fantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. Present Present .
    Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love. Present Present .


    The significant overlap of symptoms in Narcissistic, Borderline, and Antisocial Personality Disorder illustrates how similar these personality disorders are. It could be argued that these overlapping symptoms are the core features of the Narcissistic, Borderline, and Antisocial cluster of Personality Disorders. One way to remember these core features is the acronym "PEACE FAIRS" (Paranoid, Exploitative, Aggressive, Callous, Envious, Fantasies, Abandonment, Impulsive, Reckless, Suicidal).

    Although these disruptive behaviors slowly disappear as the individual ages; these maladaptive behaviors may cause decades of unemployment or be very damaging to social relationships.

    Where Do Antisocial, Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder Not Overlap?

    In the DSM-4 and DSM-5, there are certain diagnostic criteria for Antisocial, Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder that don't overlap, and thus differentiate between these disorders. The following table lists which diagnostic criteria statistically differentiate between these 3 personality disorders.

    DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY BORDERLINE PERSONALITY ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY
    Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements) Present . .
    Believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions) Present . .
    Requires excessive admiration Present . .
    Has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations Present . .
    Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes Present . .
    A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation . Present .
    Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self . Present .
    Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lastig a few hours and only rarely more than a few days) . Present .
    Chronic feelings of emptiness . Present .
    Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest . . Present
    Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure . . Present
    Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations . . Present
    Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another . . Present


    What Is The Opposite Of The Antisocial, Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorders?

    The following lists the unhealthy core features of Antisocial, Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorders. Opposite each unhealthy core behavior is listed its healthy alternative.

    UNHEALTHY CORE FEATURES OF ANTISOCIAL, BORDERLINE, AND NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDERS HEALTHY ALTERNATIVE
    Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating.) Self-Control
    Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults. Peacefulness
    Reckless disregard for safety of self or others. Caution
    Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends. Generosity
    Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her. Contentment
    Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others. Kindness
    Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior. Life Having Purpose and Meaning
    Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms. Trust
    Fantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. Confidence
    Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love. Being Realistic


    This suggests that effective treatment for Antisocial, Borderline, and Narcissistic Personality Disorder should concentrate on increasing these healthy alternative behaviors.

    Empirically Derived Taxonomy for Personality Diagnosis: Antisocial Personality Disorder

    (This section uses an alternative classification system to that of the American Psychiatric Association)

    These individuals:

    • Take advantage of others, lie or deceive, and are manipulative.

    • Show a reckless disregard for the rights, property, or safety of others.

    • Lack empathy for other people's needs and feelings.

    • Experience little remorse for harm or injury they cause.

    • Appear impervious to consequences and seem unable or unwilling to modify their behavior in response to threats or consequences.

    • Generally lack psychological insight and blame their difficulties on other people or circumstances.

    • Often appear to gain pleasure by being sadistic or aggressive toward others, and they may attempt to dominate significant others through intimidation or violence.

    • Are impulsive, seek thrills, novelty, and excitement, and require high levels of stimulation.

    • Are unreliable and irresponsible and may fail to meet work obligations or honor financial commitments.

    • May engage in antisocial behavior, including unlawful activities, substance abuse, or interpersonal violence.

    • May repeatedly convince others of their commitment to change, leading others to think "this time is really different," only to revert to their previous maladaptive behavior.

    Psychopaths:

    A diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder has limited predictive validity with respect to institutional adjustment, response to treatment, and behavior following release from prison. In contrast, the diagnosis of being a psychopath has considerable predictive validity with respect to treatment outcome, institutional adjustment, recidivism and violence (Hare 1991). Dr. Robert D. Hare's "Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)" is the psycho-diagnostic tool most commonly used to assess psychopaths. On this checklist, psychopaths have the majority of the following traits:

    • Selfish, callous and remorseless use of others:

      • Glib and superficial charm

      • Grandiose (have an inflated view of themselves and their abilities)

      • Pathological lying (with self-assurance and no apparent anxiety)

      • Cunning and manipulative

      • Lack of remorse or guilt (appear to have no conscience whatsoever)

      • Shallow affect (superficial emotional responsiveness)

      • Callousness and lack of empathy (are indifferent to the feelings of others)

      • Failure to accept responsibility for own actions

    • Chronically unstable, antisocial and socially deviant lifestyle:

      • Need for stimulation (an excessive need for new, exciting stimulation and risk-taking)

      • Parasitic lifestyle (exploitative financial dependence on others)

      • Poor behavioral control (frequent verbal abuse and inappropriate expressions of anger)

      • Sexual promiscuity (numerous brief, superficial sexual affairs)

      • Lack of realistic long-term goals (doesn't think about the future)

      • Impulsivity (act without considering the consequences of their actions; may be easily bored and have a short attention span)

      • Irresponsibility (repeated failure to fulfill or honor commitments and obligations)

      • Early behavior problems (before age 13)

      • Juvenile delinquency (criminal behavioral problems between the ages of 13-18)

      • Revocation of conditional release (violating parole or other conditional release)

      • Many short-term marital relationships (lack of commitment to a long-term relationship)

      • Criminal versatility (diversity of criminal offenses, whether or not the individual has been arrested or convicted)

    Main Characteristics of a Psychopath (Summary Using Using DSM-5 Criteria)

    • Narcissistic Traits:

      • lack of empathy (lacks understanding and appropriate response to another person's feelings)

      • grandiose sense of self-worth

      • cunning and manipulative

    • Antisocial Traits:

      • lack of remorse or guilt (callous disregard for the rights of others)

      • emotional poverty (limited range or depth of feelings)

      • impulsivity

      • irresponsibility

      • promiscuous sexual behavior

    Additional Information About Psychopaths

    Lack Of Social Skills In Personality Disorders

    There are certain social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder lack the essential social skills of respect, responsibility, and honesty. They lack cooperation/generosity and kindness (that are also lacking in individuals with narcissistic personality disorder); and they lack chastity and caution (that are also lacking in individuals with histrionic personality disorder). They lack control of anger (that is also lacking in individuals with borderline personality disorder).

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In Antisocial Personality Disorder

    SOCIAL SKILL ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY NORMAL
    Respect Disrespect for others Treating others with respect and making them feel appreciated
    Responsibility Irresponsibility Being reliable and careful; being able to accept blame, heed correction and make amends
    Honesty Dishonesty Not lying, stealing or cheating
    Control of Anger Hostility Absence of anger or irritability in response to minor slights; absence of mean or vengeful behavior
    Cooperation or Generosity Stirring up animosity between people; being manipulative or greedy Cooperating with others and doing a fair share of the work; unselfishly helping others
    Kindness Callousness Being a kind, considerate, compassionate person; feeling another's suffering & wanting to alleviate it
    Chastity Desire for casual or illicit sex Avoidance of casual sex ("one night stands") AND absence of intense desire for illicit sex
    Caution Harmful impulsiveness Thinking carefully before acting or speaking; being cautious


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    Treatment

    Setting Goals In Therapy

      Questions To Ask When Setting Goals

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)

      Example Of Setting Goals In Interviewing A Person With Antisocial Personality Disorder

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?
        "My boss."

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?
        "This Tuesday, my boss threatened to fire me."

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
        "I didn't fight with him, but I told the other guys at work that I thought my boss was an asshole."

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?
        "No, I hate my job, but I have to put up with this shit."

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
        "Last weekend I partied a lot; so I was too hungover to come to work on Monday. I got my buddy to punch in my time card to make it look like I came into work on Monday. Somehow my boss found out and fired my buddy for doing that. I told my boss that I didn't know my buddy punched in my card; so I wasn't fired. There was no point in both of us getting fired just because my buddy was stupid enough to get caught."

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)
        "I don't think there is anything wrong with my life skills." (Patient refuses to cooperate.)


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      "In physical science a first essential step in the direction of learning any subject is to find principles of numerical reckoning and practicable methods for measuring some quality connected with it. I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind: it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be."

      Lord Kelvin (1824 – 1907)


    • The best summary on bad research is given by Laura Arnold in this TEDx lecture. If you read nothing else about research, you owe it to yourself to watch this short video - it is excellent!

    • Canadian researchers who commit scientific fraud are protected by privacy laws: There are criminals in every community - even in the scientific research community (especially if a lot of money is at stake). Criminal researchers can hide their fraud behind outdated privacy laws.

    • The power of asking "what if?"

    • The active placebo effect: 2300 years ago, the Greek Stoic philosophers taught that it is not the objective event, but our subjective judgment about the event, that determines our behavior. The active placebo effect bears witness to this ancient wisdom.

    • Criteria For High Quality Research Studies

    • It is troubling that a recent study found that two-thirds of important psychological research studies couldn't be replicated. High quality research must meet the following criteria:

      • Randomized Controlled Trial:
        Ask: Was the trial randomized? Was the randomization procedure described and was it appropriate? The best research design is to have research subjects randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. It is essential that confounding factors be controlled for by having a control group or comparator condition (no intervention, placebo, care as usual etc.).

      • Representative Sample:
        Ask: Do the research subjects represent a normal cross-section of the population being studied? Many psychological research studies using university students are flawed because their subjects are not representative of the normal population since they are all W.E.I.R.D. (White, Educated, Intelligent, Rich, and living in a Democracy).

      • Single Blind Trial:
        Ask: Was the treatment allocation concealed? It is essential that the research subjects are kept "blind" as to whether they are in the experimental or control group (in order to control for any placebo effects).

      • Double Blind Trial (Better Than Single Blind Trial):
        Ask: Were blind outcome assessments conducted? In a double blind study, neither the research subjects nor the outcome assessors know if the research subject is in the experimental or control group. This controls for both the placebo effect and assessor bias.

      • Baseline Comparability:
        Ask: Were groups similar at baseline on prognostic indicators? The experimental and control groups must be shown to be comparable at the beginning of the study.

      • Confounding Factors:
        Ask: Were there factors, that weren't controlled for, that could have seriously distorted the study's results? For example, research studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness cognitive therapy in preventing depressive relapse forgot to control for whether the research subjects were also simultaneously receiving antidepressant medication or other psychological treatments for depression.

      • Intervention Integrity:
        Ask: Was the research study protocal strictly followed? The research subjects must be shown to be compliant (e.g., taking their pills, attending therapy) and the therapists must be shown to be reliably delivering the intervention (e.g., staying on the research protocol).

      • Statistical analysis:
        Ask: Was a statistical power calculation described? The study should discuss its statistical power analysis; that is whether the study size is large enough to statistically detect a difference between the experimental and control group (should it occur) and usually this requires at least 50 research subjects in the study.

        Ask: Are the results both statistically significant and clinically significant? Many medical research findings are statistically significant (with a p-value <0.05), but they are not clinically significant because the difference between the experimental and control groups is too small to be clinically relevant.

        For example, the effect of a new drug may be found to be 2% better than placebo. Statistically (if the sample size was large enough) this 2% difference could be statistically significant (with a p-value <0.05). However, clinicians would say that this 2% difference is not clinically significant (i.e., that it was too small to really make any difference).

        Statistically, the best way to test for clinical significance is to test for effect size (i.e., the size of the difference between two groups rather than confounding this with statistical probability).

        When the outcome of interest is a dichotomous variable, the commonly used measures of effect size include the odds ratio (OR), the relative risk (RR), and the risk difference (RD).

        When the outcome is a continuous variable, then the effect size is commonly represented as either the mean difference (MD) or the standardised mean difference (SMD) .

        The MD is the difference in the means of the treatment group and the control group, while the SMD is the MD divided by the standard deviation (SD), derived from either or both of the groups. Depending on how this SD is calculated, the SMD has several versions such, as Cohen's d, Glass's Δ, and Hedges' g.

          Clinical Significance: With Standard Mean Difference, the general rule of thumb is that a score of 0 to 0.25 indicates small to no effect, 0.25-0.50 a mild benefit, 0.5-1 a moderate to large benefit, and above 1.0 a huge benefit. It is a convention that a SMD of 0.5 or larger is a standard threshold for clinically meaningful benefit.

        The statistical summary should report what percentage of the total variance of the dependent variable (e.g., outcome) can be explained by the independent variable (e.g., intervention).

        In clinical studies, the study should report the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB), and the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH).

          Number Needed To Benefit (NNTB): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to benefit compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute risk reduction.) Note: Statistically, the NNTB depends on which control group is used for comparison - e.g., active treatment vs. placebo treatment, or active treatment vs. no treatment.

          Number Needed To Harm (NNTH): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to be harmed compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute increase in risk of harm.)

          Tomlinson found “an NNTB of 5 or less was probably associated with a meaningful health benefit,” while “an NNTB of 15 or more was quite certain to be associated with at most a small net health benefit.”

        Ask: Does the researcher accept full responsibility for the study's statistical analysis? The researcher should not just hand over the study's raw data to a corporation (that may have $1,000 million invested in the study) to do the statistical analysis.

      • Completeness of follow-up data:
        Ask: Was the number of withdrawals or dropouts in each group mentioned, and were reasons given for these withdrawals or dropouts? Less than 20% of the research subjects should drop out of the study. The intervention effect should persist over an adequate length of time.

      • Handling of missing data:
        Ask: Was the statistical analysis conducted on the intention-to-treat sample? There must be use of intention-to-treat analysis (as opposed to a completers-only analysis). In this way, all of the research subjects that started the study are included in the final statistical analysis. A completers-only analysis would disregard those research subjects that dropped out.

      • Replication of Findings:
        Ask: Can other researchers replicate this study's results? The research study's methodology should be clearly described so that the study can be easily replicated. The researcher's raw data should be available to other researchers to review (in order to detect errors or fraud).

      • Fraud:
        Ask: Is there a suspicion of fraud? In a research study, examine the independent and dependent variables that are always measured as a positive whole number (e.g., a variable measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from "1 = definitely false to 5 = definitely true" etc.). For each of these variables, look at their sample size (n), mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) before they undergo statistical analysis. There is a high suspicion of fraud in a study's statistics:

        • If the M is mathematically impossible (online calculator): This is one of the easiest ways to mathematically detect fraud. The mean (M) is defined as "the sum (Sum) of the values of each observation divided by the total number (n) of observations". So: M = Sum/n. Thus: (Sum) = (M) multiplied by (n). We know that, if a variable is always measured as a positive whole number, the sum of these observations always has to be a whole number. For these variables to test for fraud: calculate (M) multiplied by (n). This calculates the Sum which MUST be a positive whole number. If the calculated Sum isn't a positive whole number; the reported mean (M) is mathematically impossible - thus the researcher either cooked the data or made a mistake. A recent study of 260 research papers published in highly reputable psychological journals found that 1 in 2 of these research papers reported at least one impossible value, and 1 in 5 of these research papers reported multiple impossible values. When the authors of the 21 worst offending research papers were asked for their raw data (so that its reliability could be checked) - 57% angrily refused. Yet such release of raw data to other researchers is required by most scientific journals. (Here is an example of a research paper filled with mathematically impossible means.)

        • If the SD is mathematically impossible (online calculator): When researchers fraudulently "cook" their data, they may accidently give their data a mean and standard deviation that is mathematically impossible.

        • If the SD/M is very small (i.e., the variable's standard deviation is very small compared to the mean suggesting data smoothing).

        • If the SD's are almost identical (i.e., the variables have different means but almost identical standard deviations).

        • If the 4th digit of the values of the variables aren't uniformly distributed - since each should occur 10% of the time (Benford's Law).

        • If the researcher is legally prevented from publishing negative findings about a drug or therapy because that would violate the "nondisclosure of trade secrets" clause in the research contract (i.e., it is a "trade secret" that the drug or therapy is ineffective - hence this can not be "disclosed"). Approximately half of all registered clinical trials fail to publish their results.

        • If the researcher refuses to release his raw data to fellow researchers (so that they can check its validity). In order to be published in most scientific journals, a researcher must promise to share his raw data with fellow researchers. Thus a researcher's refusal to do so is almost a sure indicator of fraud.

        • If the research study's data contradicts the study's own conclusions - surprisingly, this often occurs.

    • Calling Bullshit In The Age of Big Data - "Bullshit is language, statistical figures, data graphics, and other forms of presentation intended to persuade by impressing and overwhelming a reader or listener, with a blatant disregard for truth and logical coherence." Reading the syllabus of this university course should be required reading for every student of mental health. This syllabus is absolutely fantastic!

    • Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations - American Psychologist 1999

    • Not All Scientific Studies Are Created Equal - video

    • The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment

    • Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    • Psychologists grapple with validity of research

    • Industry sponsorship and research outcome (Review) - Cochrane Library

    • 'We've been deceived': Many clinical trial results are never published - (text and video)

    • Junk science misleading doctors and researchers

    • Junk science under spotlight after controversial firm buys Canadian journals

    • Medicine with a side of mysticism: Top hospitals promote unproven therapies - Are some doctors becoming modern witchdoctors?

    • When Evidence Says No, But Doctors Say Yes


    • Cochrane Collaboration - the best evidence-based, standardized reviews available

    Research Topics

    Antisocial Personality Disorder - Core Clinical Journals

    Antisocial Personality - All Journals

    Antisocial Personality - Review Articles - Core Clinical Journals

    Antisocial Personality - Review Articles - All Journals

    Recommended Free Full Text Articles


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    Ancient Wisdom Relevant To Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Ancient Egypt

    • "That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another." (From a papyrus of 664–323 BCE)

    Ancient India

    • "Treat others as you treat yourself." (Mahābhārata Shānti-Parva 167:9)

    • "Do not do to others what you know has hurt yourself." (From the the Tirukkuṛaḷ 200 BCE – 500 CE)

    • "One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one’s own self." (Anusasana Parva, Section CXIII, Verse 8)

    Buddhism (Gautama Buddha 623–543 BCE)

    • "Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful." (Udanavarga 5:18)

    • "There's no enemy outside our soul. The real enemies live inside us; Anger, Ego, Greed and Hate."

    • "You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger." "Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned."

    • "Overcome anger through kindness, wickedness through goodness, selfishness through charity, and falsehood through truthfulness."

    • "Hatred does not cease by hatred, but only by love; this is the eternal rule."

    • "If people speak or act with evil thoughts, pain follows them. If people speak or act with pure thoughts, happiness follows them, like a shadow that never leaves them. "

    • "A good friend who points out mistakes and imperfections and rebukes evil is to be respected as if he reveals a secret of hidden treasure."
    • Long Discourses: Sigālovāda Sutta - 31. The Buddha’s Advice to Sigālaka [DN 31]
    • Ethical teachings of Buddha

      "Harming living beings, taking what is not given, false speech, and pursuing the loved one of another: these the wise surely do not praise."

      "What are the four causes of harmful deeds? Going astray through desire, hatred, delusion (mistaken beliefs), or fear."

      "Heedlessness caused by intoxication, roaming the streets at inappropriate times, habitual partying, compulsive gambling, bad companionship, and laziness are the six ways of squandering wealth."

      "These are the six dangers inherent in bad companionship: any rogue, drunkard, addict, cheat, swindler, or thug becomes a friend and colleague."

      Enemies disguised as friends

      "The friend who is all take, the friend of empty words, the friend full of flattery, and the reckless friend; these four are not friends, but enemies. The wise understand this and keep them at a distance as they would a dangerous path."

      "Be aware of these four enemies disguised as friends: the taker, the talker, the flatterer, and the reckless companion.

      • The taker can be identified by four things: by only taking, asking for a lot while giving little, performing duty out of fear, and offering service in order to gain something.

      • The talker can be identified by four things: by reminding of past generosity, promising future generosity, mouthing empty words of kindness, and protesting personal misfortune when called on to help.

      • The flatterer can be identified by four things: by supporting both bad and good behavior indiscriminately, praising you to your face, and putting you down behind your back.

      • The reckless companion can be identified by four things: by accompanying you in drinking, roaming around at night, partying, and gambling."

      Good-hearted friends

      "Be aware of these four good-hearted friends: the helper, the friend who endures in good times and bad, the mentor, and the compassionate friend.

      • The helper can be identified by four things: by protecting you when you are vulnerable, and likewise your wealth, being a refuge when you are afraid, and in various tasks providing double what is requested.

      • The enduring friend can be identified by four things: by telling you secrets, guarding your own secrets closely, not abandoning you in misfortune, and even dying for you.

      • The mentor can be identified by four things: by restraining you from wrongdoing, guiding you towards good actions, telling you what you ought to know, and showing you the path to heaven.

      • The compassionate friend can be identified by four things: by not rejoicing in your misfortune, delighting in your good fortune, preventing others from speaking ill of you, and encouraging others who praise your good qualities."

      Buddhist "kind dispositions"

      "These directions a person should honor in order to be truly good.

      • Wise and virtuous, gentle and eloquent, humble and accommodating; such a person attains glory.

      • Energetic, not lazy, not shaken in misfortune, flawless in conduct, and intelligent; such a person attains glory.

      • A compassionate maker of friends, approachable, free from stinginess, a leader, a teacher, and diplomat; such a person attains glory.

      • Generosity and kind words, conduct for others’ welfare, impartiality in all things; these are suitable everywhere.

      These kind dispositions hold the world together, like the linchpin of a moving chariot."
    • Wrong livelihood
      • "Monks, a lay follower should not engage in five types of business. Which five? Business in weapons, business in human beings (editor: i.e., slavery), business in meat, business in intoxicants, and business in poison." (Vanijja Sutta: AN 5.177)
    • Slavery
      • Buddha never preached against social inequality; he only declared its irrelevance to salvation. He never tried to abolish the caste system or do away with slavery. In fact, many Buddhist monastic communities employed slaves since their monastic rules banned monks from cooking or storing food.

    Confucianism (Confucius 551–479 BCE)

    • "What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others."

    • "Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself."

    Ancient Greece

    • "Avoid doing what you would blame others for doing." (Thales 624–546 BCE)

    • "Do not do to others that which angers you when they do it to you." (Isocrates 436–338 BCE)
    • Plato (428-348 BCE)
      • "All the gold which is under or upon the earth is not enough to give in exchange of virtue."

      • "When men speak ill of thee, live so as nobody may believe them."

      • "Excess generally causes reaction, and produces a change in the opposite direction, whether it be in the seasons, or in individuals, or in governments."

      • "Those who intend on becoming great should love neither themselves nor their own things, but only what is just, whether it happens to be done by themselves or others."

      • Plato taught that a virtuous life brought happiness. He believed the four main virtues were justice, self-control, wisdom, and courage.

      • Plato taught that it was very important to fulfill our obligations and to help our fellow humans.

      • Plato was part of the Athenian aristocracy, and he didn't oppose slavery; in fact, he had three slaves. He thought that it was right for the 'better' to rule over the 'inferior'.

    • According to Plutarch, Zeno (the founder of Stoicism) taught that “we should look upon all people in general to be our fellow-countryfolk and citizens, observing one manner of living and one kind of order, like a flock feeding together with equal right in one common pasture.”

    Ancient Persia

    • "That nature alone is good which refrains from doing to another whatsoever is not good for itself." (Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5 from the Pahlavi Texts of Zoroastrianism 300 BCE–1000 CE)

    • "Whatever is disagreeable to yourself do not do unto others." (Shayast-na-Shayast 13:29 from the Pahlavi Texts of Zoroastrianism 300 BCE–1000 CE)

    Ancient Rome

    • "I do not wish to involve myself in too large a question, and to discuss the treatment of slaves, towards whom we Romans are excessively haughty, cruel, and insulting. But this is the kernel of my advice: Treat your inferiors as you would be treated by your betters." (Seneca the Younger 4 BCE–65 CE)
    • Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome (121-180 CE)
      • “Love humanity from the bottom of your heart” while rejoicing in doing good to others for its own sake and treating virtue as it own reward. (Meditations, 7.13)

      • "Your task is to be a good human being ... speak the truth as you see it. But with kindness, with humility, without hypocrisy.”

      • “Adapt yourself to the life you have been given; and truly love the people with whom destiny has surrounded you.”

      • “Whoever does wrong, wrongs himself; whoever does injustice, does it to himself, making himself evil.”

      • “If it is not right do not do it; if it is not true do not say it.”

      • “Never value anything as profitable that compels you to break your promise, to lose your self-respect, to hate any man, to suspect, to curse, to act the hypocrite, to desire anything that needs walls and curtains.”

      • “In a sense, people are our proper occupation. Our job is to do them good and put up with them.”

      • “When you start to lose your temper, remember: There’s nothing manly about rage. It’s courtesy and kindness that define a human being”

      • “Anger and the sorrow it produces are far more harmful than the things which make us angry.”

      • “When men are inhuman, take care not to feel towards them as they do towards other humans.”

      • “Be tolerant with others and strict with yourself.”

      • “That to expect bad people not to injure others is crazy. It's to ask the impossible. And to let them behave like that to other people but expect them to exempt you is arrogant"

      • “Accustom yourself not to be disregarding of what someone else has to say: as far as possible enter into the mind of the speaker.”

      • “If any man despises me, that is his problem. My only concern is not doing or saying anything deserving of contempt.”

      • “Hour by hour resolve firmly to do what comes to hand with dignity, and with humanity, independence, and justice. Allow your mind freedom from all other considerations."

      • Taught that the only way to find happiness is not to expect gratitude, but to give for the joy of giving. "Begin each day by telling yourself: Today I shall be meeting with interference, ingratitude, insolence, disloyalty, ill-will, and selfishness – all of them due to the offenders’ ignorance of what is good or evil." [editor: Remember that Jesus healed ten lepers in one day - and only one thanked Him.]

      • Believed, like Plato, that the four main virtues were justice, self-control, wisdom, and courage.

      • Taught that fortune, fame, and power are not worth pursuing. Instead, believed we should live a virtuous life free of negative emotions in harmony with others and nature.

      • Taught that people become slaves to their vices, but virtuous behavior prevents addiction to evil.

      • Taught that, to tame our tendency to always want more, we should better appreciate the things we already have by contemplating what our life would be like if we lost those things.

      • Since 25% of Romans were slaves, as Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius did not oppose slavery. However, he did pass laws that made slavery a little more humane.

    The Hebrew Bible

    • "You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbor as yourself." (Leviticus 19:18)

    • "What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow: this is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation." (Hillel the Elder 110 BCE – 10 CE)

    • "(The wicked rich) buy and sell upstanding people. People for them are only things — ways of making money. They’d sell a poor man for a pair of shoes. They’d sell their own grandmother! They grind the penniless into the dirt, shove the luckless into the ditch." (Amos 2:6-7) MSG version

    • "As I have observed, those who plow evil and those who sow trouble reap it." (Job 4:8)

    • "It is a sin to despise one’s neighbor, but blessed is the one who is kind to the needy. Do not those who plot evil go astray? But those who plan what is good find love and faithfulness." (Proverbs 14:21-22)

    • "There are six things the LORD hates.... haughty eyes, a lying tongue, hands that shed innocent blood, a heart that devises wicked schemes, feet that are quick to rush into evil, a false witness who pours out lies and a person who stirs up conflict in the community." (Proverbs 6:16-19)
    • The Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:3-17)
      • You shall have no other gods before Me.

      • You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything.

      • You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God.

      • Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.

      • Honor your father and your mother.

      • You shall not murder.

      • You shall not commit adultery.

      • You shall not steal.

      • You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.

      • You shall not covet your neighbor's house, wife, or property."

    The Christian Bible

    • "Do to others what you would want them to do to you." (Luke 6:31)

    • "Love your neighbor as you love yourself." (Luke 10:27-28)

    • "Give us today our daily bread, and forgive us our sins, as we have forgiven those who have sinned against us." (Matthew 6:11-12)

    • "Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good." (Romans 12:21)

    • "Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth." (1 Corinthians 13:6)

    • "Those who want to get rich fall into temptation and a trap and into many foolish and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil." (1 Timothy 6:9-10)
    • Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:3-12)
      • "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

      • Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.

      • Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.

      • Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.

      • Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy.

      • Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.

      • Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons[a] of God.

      • Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

      • Blessed are you when others revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account.

      • Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you."
    • Christian duties
      • Christian duties are to: feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, welcome the stranger, clothe the naked, visit the sick, visit those in prison (Matthew 25:35–36), help orphans or widows in distress (James 1:27), and work hard (Colossians 3:23).
    • Slavery
      • As in the ancient writings of Buddhism, Judaism, and Islam, the Bible condoned slavery.

      • "Your male and female slaves are to come from the nations around you; from them you may buy slaves." (Leviticus 25:44-46)

      • "Slaves, obey your earthly masters in everything, not only while being watched in order to please them, but with a sincere heart, fearing the Lord." (Colossians 3:22)

    Islam

    • "As you would have people do to you, do to them; and what you dislike to be done to you, don't do to them." (Hadith Kitab al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 146)

    • "He is not a believer who eats his fill when his neighbor beside him is hungry." (Al-Mundhiri)

    • "A hypocrite is known by three traits: When he speaks, he lies; when he promises, he reneges; when he is entrusted, he cheats." (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim)
    • Slavery
      • Slavery is allowed in Islam, however Islam encourages setting slaves free. The Quran provides for emancipation of a slave as a means of religious atonement for sins.

      • "Do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess." (An Nisa 4:36)


    Comment by Phillip Long MD (Psychiatrist and Editor):


    It's A Wonder We're Still Alive

    The Man Who Saved The World

    The world barely avoided being annihilated in 1983. On 26 September 1983, the nuclear early warning system of the Soviet Union erroneously reported an incoming attack against Russia by American intercontinental missiles. Russia has a "launch on warning" policy whereby it launches its missiles against America on the first warning of an incoming American missile attack.

    Fortunately this missile attack warning was correctly identified as a false alarm by Stanislav Petrov, lieutenant colonel of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Petrov's decision to disregard the erroneous radar warnings is credited with having prevented a retaliatory nuclear attack on the United States and its NATO allies that could have resulted in large-scale nuclear war.

    Stanislav Petrov had the courage to disobey his military orders (to "launch on warning") because of his personal knowledge and convictions. He knew that launching a large-scale nuclear war would annihilate humanity, and he knew that the Russian early warning system could not be trusted.

    9 Times the World Was at the Brink of Nuclear War — and Pulled Back

    Due to human error, there have been nine times that the world was at the brink of nuclear war — but pulled back. Accidental false alerts which could trigger a nuclear war are not a rare occurrence. Given how incompetent our nuclear "launch on warning" system is - it is a miracle that we haven't already annihilated all life on earth.



    The 2 Men Who Could End The World

    America and Russia possess 93% of the world's nuclear weapons. Thus Valdimir Putin and President Trump are the only two people on earth who could single-handedly start a nuclear World War III and thus annihilate all life on our planet.

    The problem now is that the leaders of Russia and America have severe personality flaws that make them incapable of appreciating the enormity of harm that they may cause.

    Both Vladimir Putin and President Trump have Antisocial, Narcissistic, and Paranoid Personality Disorders.

    Why is the mental health of Vladimir Putin or President Trump important?

    The world's fate is now in the hands of two leaders who have the following severe personality flaws:

    Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    • Arrogance:
      Being boastful or excessively proud; offensive display of superiority or self-importance.

    • Manipulation:
      Exploiting, conning, or taking unfair advantage of others.

    • Callousness:
      Lack of guilt or remorse about causing others harm; indifference to the suffering of others.

    • Attention Seeking:
      Trying to be the center of attention; being overly dramatic or flamboyant.

    Paranoid Personality Disorder

    • Suspiciousness:
      Suspecting, without sufficient basis, that others are harming or deceiving him.

    • Bearing grudges:
      Blaming others; seeking revenge

    • Being Hot-Headed:
      Easily angered; quick to take offense; unable to take criticism, blame or rejection.


    Tony Schwartz wrote "The Art of the Deal" for Donald Trump, and spent 18 months in Donald Trump's office observing him in order to write this Donald Trump biography. In 2016, immediately before the presidential election, Tony Schwartz gave a scathing lecture entitled "The Truth About Trump" at Oxford University. Every American who voted for President Trump should watch this Oxford lecture video.

    Jan. 29, 2017: Alexandre Bissonnette, a white, 27-year-old, French-Canadian male far right extremist shot 25 Muslims in the back while they were at prayer in their mosque in Quebec City, Canada. Six were killed, 5 were hospitalized in critical condition, and the other wounded required only brief hospitalization. All of Canada mourned this barbaric act of senseless hatred against Muslims. Canadians are now asking how can the flood of far right anti-Muslim hatred coming into Canada from other countries be stopped? Take a good look at where the far right anti-Muslim hatred is taking us. [Racism can be untaught: How getting beat up taught a new Canadian not to be racist]

    P.S. In the past 2 years, Canada has accepted more than 40,000 Syrian refugees. Not one of these Syrian refugees has attempted a terrorist attack in Canada or America.
    A Counterargument To President Trump's Xenophobia:
    (Interview with Jack Ma, a Chinese businessman worth US$ 35 billion) "In the past 30 years, America has had 13 wars spending US$ 14.2 trillion. What if they spent a fraction of that money building up [America's] infrastructure, and helping white collar and blue collar workers? ... You are supposed to spend money on your own people. The money has gone to Wall Street. And what happened? In 2008, the financial crisis wiped out US$ 19.2 trillion in USA alone, and destroyed 34 million jobs globally. What if that money wasn't spent on Wall Street? What if that money was spent on middle America and the rest of the United States developing the industry there? So it's not the other countries stealing jobs from America, it is your strategy [over-spending on war and on Wall Street]. You did not distribute your money in the proper way."


    Language Characteristics of Those With Antisocial Personality

    In terms of the Big-5 Personality Traits, individuals with antisocial personality disorder have low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Research has found that such individuals have a characteristic form of language:

    • problem talk, dissatisfaction
    • little empathy
    • many personal attacks
    • many commands, global rejections (e.g., "get rid of him", "his type are all no good")
    • few self-references
    • many negations (e.g., "that's not good")
    • many swear words
    • few insight words (e.g., "I see", "I think that")
    • few positive emotion words (e.g., "happy", "good")
    • many negative emotion words (e.g., "hate", "bad")
    • less careful to check that information is conveyed correctly
    • vague
    • informal way of speaking
    • many references to friends (e.g. "fellas", "pal", "buddy")
    • many filler words (e.g., "ah", "you know")
    • many pauses
    • impulsive





    How Donald Trump Answers A Question

    Language Characteristics of Those With The Opposite of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Since individuals with antisocial personality disorder have low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness, it is interesting to examine the opposite - namely the language of individuals with high Agreeableness and high Conscientiousness. Research has found that such individuals have a characteristic form of language:

    • pleasure talk, agreement, compliments
    • empathy
    • few personal attacks
    • few commands, global rejections
    • many self-references
    • few negations (e.g., "that's not good")
    • few swear words
    • many insight words (e.g., "I see", "I think that")
    • many positive emotion words (e.g., "happy", "good")
    • few negative emotion words (e.g., "hate", "bad")
    • careful to check that information is conveyed correctly
    • straight to the point
    • formal way of speaking
    • few references to friends (e.g. "fellas", "pal", "buddy")
    • few filler words (e.g., "ah", "you know")
    • few pauses
    • not impulsive


    How The Rich Neglect The Poor

    Having Money Makes You Ruder And Less Empathetic

    Certain individuals have amassed great power and wealth. These fabulously rich individuals totally neglect the poor and the starving, and care only about accumulating more wealth, fame and power - even if it means oppressing half of humanity. They, and the corporations they control, do everything in their power to avoid paying their fair share of taxes. Although they may give millions to charity, many of their corporations avoid paying billions in taxes every year.





    The 62 Richest People Are As Wealthy As The Poorest Half Of The World

    The richest 1% now own a staggering portion of the world's wealth

    The top 0.1% of American households hold the same amount of wealth as the bottom 90%

    What the 1% Don't Want You to Know


    Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?

    Research has shown that there are 5 major dimensions (the "Big 5 Factors") of personality disorders and other mental disorders. There are two free online personality tests that assess your personality in terms of the "Big 5 dimensions of personality". Although not computerized online, the Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a 44-item test often used in personality research.

    This website uses these 5 major dimensions of human behavior to describe all mental disorders. (This website adds one more dimension, "Physical Health", but our discussion will focus on the first 5 major dimensions.)

    These major dimensions of human behavior seem to represent the major dimensions whereby our early evolutionary ancestors chose their hunting companions or spouse. To maximize their chance for survival, our ancestors wanted companions who were agreeable, conscientious, intelligent, sociable, emotionally stable, and physically healthy.

    Which Dimensions of Human Behavior are Impaired in Antisocial Personality Disorder?

    THE POSITIVE SIDE OF THE "BIG 5" PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS THE NEGATIVE SIDE OF THE "BIG 5" PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS THIS DISORDER
    Agreeableness Antagonism       Antagonism
    Conscientiousness Disinhibition       Disinhibition
    Intellect Decreased Intellect       Intellect
    Sociability (Extraversion) Detachment       Sociability (Extraversion)
    Emotional Stability Negative Emotion       Emotional Stability


    The 5 Major Dimensions of Mental Illness

    The Big 5 Factors or dimensions of mental illness each has a healthy side and an unhealthy side. Thus the Big 5 Factors are: (1) Agreeableness vs. Antagonism, (2) Conscientiousness vs. Disinhibition, (3) Intellect vs. Decreased Intellect, (4) Sociability (Extraversion) vs. Detachment (Introversion), and (5) Emotional Stability vs. Negative Emotion.

    The Following Will Only Discuss The Dimensions of Mental Illness That Are Abnormal In This Disorder

    The problems that are diagnostic of this disorder are highlighted in   Pink  . Other problems that are often seen in this disorder are highlighted in   Yellow  .



    Treatment Goals for Antagonism In Antisocial Personality Disorder

    AGREEABLENESS VS. ANTAGONISM
    .
    AGREEABLENESS
    .
    Description: Agreeableness is synonymous with compassion and politeness. Compassion reflects empathy, sympathy, and caring for others. Politeness reflects respect for others. Agreeable people are interested in others, and they make people feel comfortable. The Agreeableness dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of JUSTICE and equality (fair, honest, and helpful behavior - living in harmony with others, neither harming nor allowing harm). Justice is then the public manifestation of love. High agreeableness is associated with better: longevity, helping others, giving to charity, job [team] performance, and marital success. (This dimension appears to measure the behaviors that differentiate friend from foe.)
    Descriptors: Compassionate, polite, warm, friendly, helpful, unselfish, generous, modest.
    Language Characteristics: Pleasure talk, agreement, compliments, empathy, few personal attacks, few commands or global rejections, many self-references, few negations, few swear words, few threats, many insight words.
    Research: Higher scores on Agreeableness are associated with deeper relationships. *MRI research found that Agreeableness was associated with increased volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals.
    "I am helpful and unselfish with others."
    "I have a forgiving nature."
    "I am generally trusting."
    "I am considerate and kind to almost everyone."
    "I like to cooperate with others."
    "I don't find fault with others."
    "I don't start quarrels with others."
    "I am not cold and aloof."
    "I am not rude to others."
    "I feel other's emotions."
    "I inquire about others' well-being."
    "I sympathize with others' feelings."
    "I take an interest in other people's lives."
    "I like to do things for others."
    "I respect authority."
    "I hate to seem pushy."
    "I avoid imposing my will on others."
    "I rarely put people under pressure."
    .
    ANTAGONISM
    .
    Description: Antagonism is synonymous with competition and aggression. Antagonistic people are self-interested, and do not see others positively.
    Descriptors: Manipulative, deceitful, grandiose, callous, disrespectful, unfriendly, suspicious, uncooperative, malicious.
    Language Characteristics: Problem talk, dissatisfaction, little empathy, many personal attacks, many commands or global rejections, few self-references, many negations, many swear words, many threats, little politeness, few insight words.
    .
    * Callousness:
    "It's no big deal if I hurt other people's feelings."
    "Being rude and unfriendly is just a part of who I am."
    "I often get into physical fights."
    "I enjoy making people in control look stupid."
    "I am not interested in other people's problems."
    "I can't be bothered with other's needs."
    "I am indifferent to the feelings of others."
    "I don't have a soft side."
    "I take no time for others."
    .
    * Deceitfulness:
    "I don't hesitate to cheat if it gets me ahead."
    "Lying comes easily to me."
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "People don't realize that I'm flattering them to get something."
    .
    * Manipulativeness:
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "It is easy for me to take advantage of others."
    "I'm good at conning people."
    "I am out for my own personal gain."
    .
    * Hostility:
    "I get irritated easily by all sorts of things."
    "I am easily angered."
    "I have a very short temper."
    "I snap at people when they do little things that irritate me."
    "It makes me really angry when people insult me in even a minor way."
    "I’m nasty and short to anybody who deserves it."
    "I am usually pretty hostile."
    "I can be mean when I need to be."
    "I resent being told what to do, even by people in charge."
    "I always make sure I get back at people who wrong me."
    .
    ("Agreeableness vs. Antagonism" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.



    Treatment Goals for Disinhibition In Antisocial Personality Disorder

    CONSCIENTIOUSNESS VS. DISINHIBITION
    .
    CONSCIENTIOUSNESS
    .
    Description: Conscientiousness is synonymous with being self-disciplined, industrious and orderly. The Conscientiousness dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of SELF-CONTROL - organizing and controlling one's behavior in order to achieve one's goals. This involves traits like paying attention, controlling impulses, and delaying gratification. High conscientiousness is associated with better: longevity, health, school and job performance. (This dimension appears to measure the behaviors that differentiate behavioral order and inhibition from chaos and disinhibition.)
    Descriptors: Industrious, self-disciplined, rule-abiding, organized
    Language Characteristics: Many positive emotion words (e.g. happy, good), few negative emotion words (e.g. hate, bad), more perspective, careful to check that information is conveyed correctly, straight to the point, formal, few negations, few swear words, few references to friends, few disfluencies or filler words, many insight words, not impulsive.
    Research: Higher scores on Conscientiousness predict greater success in school and at work. *MRI research found that Conscientiousness was associated with increased volume in the lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior.
    "I do a thorough job. I want everything to be 'just right'. I want every detail taken care of."
    "I am careful."
    "I am a reliable hard-worker."
    "I am organized. I follow a schedule and always know what I am doing."
    "I like order. I keep things tidy."
    "I see that rules are observed."
    "I do things efficiently. I get things done quickly."
    "I carry out my plans and finish what I start."
    "I am not easily distracted."
    .
    DISINHIBITION
    .
    Description: Disinhibition is synonymous with being distractible, impulsive and disorganized.
    Descriptors: Distractible, impulsive, irresponsible, disorganised, unreliable, careless, forgetful
    Language Characteristics: Few positive emotion words, many negative emotion words, less perspective, less careful, more vague, informal, many negations, many swear words, many references to friends (e.g. pal, buddy), many disfluencies or filler words, few insight words, impulsive.
    .
    * Irresponsibility:
    "I've skipped town to avoid responsibilities."
    "I just skip appointments or meetings if I'm not in the mood."
    "I'm often pretty careless with my own and others' things."
    "Others see me as irresponsible."
    "I make promises that I don't really intend to keep."
    "I often forget to pay my bills."
    .
    * Impulsivity:
    "I usually do things on impulse without thinking about what might happen as a result."
    "Even though I know better, I can't stop making rash decisions."
    "I feel like I act totally on impulse."
    "I'm not good at planning ahead."
    .
    * Reckless Risk Taking:
    "I like to take risks."
    "I have no limits when it comes to doing dangerous things."
    "People would describe me as reckless."
    "I don't think about getting hurt when I'm doing things that might be dangerous."
    .
    ("Conscientiousness vs. Disinhibition" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.



    The Blueprint For Virtue Is Built Into Your DNA

    More than 2,300 years ago, the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384–322 BC), said: "What is the essence of life? To serve others and to do good." Aristotle taught that "doing good" was synonymous with living a life of virtue. He believed these virtues were in keeping with the laws of nature.

    Aristotle and other ancient Greek philosophers believed that the main virtues were justice, self-control/moderation, wisdom, sociability, courage, and physical health.

    Psychological research now has shown that these virtues do predict success and good health. It can be argued that these virtues represent basic evolutionary principles that are evident at every level of our existence: physiological, psychological, and social.

    DNA, The Basis of Life

    First let's examine the chemical basis of life - the DNA molecule.



    • The DNA molecule is the foundation of all life on earth. DNA is a double helix molecule that is like a spiral ladder with rungs. Each rung on this ladder consists of 2 base pairs; altogether there are 4 bases used by DNA. These four bases are abbreviated A, T, C, and G. These 4 bases form the "4 letter chemical code" in DNA which stores all the chemical information necessary for life.

    • The DNA molecule's spiral ladder has millions of rungs (base pairs). Part of DNA's chemical code is read by messenger RNA (which takes it out of the cell nucleus to the nearby ribosomes who use this code to create proteins). All the DNA chemical code in our 46 chromosomes is estimated to be about 3.2 billion base pairs long.

    • Proteins are built as chains of amino acids, which then fold into unique three-dimensional shapes that have different functions. Proteins compose structural and motor elements in the cell, and they serve as the catalysts for virtually every biochemical reaction that occurs in living things.

    DNA Replication



    • The mutual attraction between opposite bases (G-C and A-T) allows for DNA replication, since the DNA molecule can divide lengthwise into two halves. Then each half can attract the necessary opposite bases to create a complementary new strand of DNA.

    • This chemical replication only works because of the mutual attraction between opposite base pairs.

    Virtues Manifested at The Physiological, Psychological, and Social Levels

    • Justice:

    • In terms of survival, it is better that members of a species cooperate. With one's own species, cooperation requires that an individual neither harms nor allows harm (which is the definition of justice). Justice requires mutually beneficial interaction in which no party gains an unfair advantage. It ensures service to the common good - not just good for the privileged few. [Golden Rule: "The commandments, 'You shall not commit adultery,' 'You shall not murder,' 'You shall not steal,' 'You shall not covet,' and whatever other command there may be, are summed up in this one command: 'Love your neighbor as yourself.' Love does no harm to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law." (Romans 13: 9-10) "Do to others what you would want them to do to you." (Luke 6:31)].

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] The Most Adaptable Survive

        Evolution isn't survival of the fittest; it is survival of the most adaptable.


        In evolution, it is not the strongest or smartest organism that survives - it is the organism that can best adapt to its changing environment.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Live In Harmony

        An organism must be able to flourish in harmony with its environment.


        For example, all the cells in a healthy body grow in harmony. Cancer represents the harmful breakdown in these harmonious cellular relationships. Cancer results from mutated DNA that is self-destructive because it causes uncontrollable growth which kills the organism and itself.

        [Evolutionary Principle] No Species Escapes Extinction

        Nothing lives forever; nearly all species that ever lived are now extinct. They did not survive the sudden climate changes that caused mass extinctions of nearly all life on earth. Fortunately, a few species did survive the last mass extinction.


        There have been five mass extinction events in Earth's history. In the worst one, 250 million years ago, 96 percent of marine species and 70 percent of land species died off. Humans almost went extinct 60,000 years ago when only approximately 1,000 humans survived a global drought. Nowadays, many scientists are predicting that we're on track for a sixth mass extinction due to human destruction of the environment. This human-caused mass extinction of life on earth is the greatest injustice that humanity has ever created.

      • Psychological Level:

        Justice means neither harming nor allowing harm.

        Injustice is more than just being deceitful (e.g., lying, stealing, cheating). Justice requires that we neither harm nor allow harm to others and our environment. Justice is the public manifestation of love.

      • Social Level:

        Social injustice occurs when one group unfairly harms another. Social justice requires that we treat others the way we want them to treat us.

        Evolution doesn't care if we are beautiful, strong, intelligent, or happy. Evolution only cares if we can flourish by living in harmony with others and our environment.

        Injustice occurs when groups or nations harmfully violate the rights of others. Once there is a breakdown in the rule of law, it is just a matter of time until the group or nation degenerates into corruption and a violent struggle for power.

        Humanity's survival now depends upon whether love, brotherhood, and peace can overcome hate, nationalism, and war.

    • Self-Control:

    • To survive, all organisms have homeostatic mechanisms that strive to balance their functioning at an optimal level between excess and deficiency. Some organisms have strong homeostatic mechanisms; hence their functioning is highly regulated and orderly. Other organisms have weak homeostatic mechanisms; hence their functioning is weakly regulated and disorderly or chaotic. [Golden Mean: The Greek poet Hesiod (c.700 bc) said that "moderation is best in all things'. Ancient Greek philosophers taught that self-control or moderation is about finding the Golden Mean or balance between two extremes, excess and deficiency.]

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Maintain Stability By Self-Regulation (Homeostasis)

        Life involves constant change, and all organisms evolve ways to moderate these changes to maintain their stability (i.e., homeostasis). The goal of this homeostasis is to maintain optimal conditions for life (i.e., to avoid deficiency or excess).


        For example, DNA is self-controlling; it moderates its functioning by turning itself on or off depending upon its environment. Thus, by moderating its own functioning, DNA can better survive environmental change. However, there is a limit to how much change organisms can withstand (e.g., a fish out of water).

        [Evolutionary Principle] Certain Vices Shorten Life

        Certain excesses (smoking, obesity, and alcohol) damage DNA; hence must be seen as vices.


        "A major cause of aging is 'oxidative stress.' It is the damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids (fats) caused by oxidants, which are highly reactive substances containing oxygen. These oxidants are produced normally when we breathe, and also result from inflammation, infection, and consumption of alcohol and cigarettes. In one study, scientists exposed worms to two substances that neutralize oxidants, and the worms' lifespan increased an average 44%.

        Another factor in aging is 'glycation.' It happens when glucose, the main sugar we use as energy, binds to some of our DNA, proteins, and lipids, leaving them unable to do their jobs. The problem becomes worse as we get older, causing body tissues to malfunction, resulting in disease and death. Glycation may explain why studies in laboratory animals indicate that restricting calorie intake extends lifespan." [reference]

      • Psychological Level:

        Self-control and moderation in all things (i.e., good behavioral homeostasis) is the core feature of conscientiousness.

        Conscientious individuals have good homeostatic control of their behavior - it is neither excessively inhibited nor disinhibited. They are careful, responsible, hard-working, cautious, focused, and organized. In contrast, individuals lacking conscientiousness are careless, irresponsible, impulsive, easily distracted, and disorganized.

      • Social Level:

        Vices (behavioral excesses or deficiencies) must be controlled or they will destroy a group or nation.

        When a group or nation is overcome by its excesses (e.g. alcoholism, drug abuse, or corruption) or deficiencies (e.g. injustice or massive poverty); it withers and dies.

    • Wisdom:

    • Learning requires attention, reasoning, and memory. Of the 21 different hominids that have existed; 20 are now extinct. Only our species, homo sapiens, has survived. It appears evolution has favored our species, compared to the extinct hominids, because of our superior adaptability and ability to learn. [Our Attention May Blind Us: The biggest problem with learning is that our selective attention may blind us to much of what we see. We create our own reality - seeing only what we are interested in seeing. Thus we are blinded by our desires and biases.].

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Experiment To Improve Adaptation

        Evolution creates better adapted organisms by using mutation and natural selection.


        The sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA preserves the specific order of the rungs on the DNA ladder. Chance mutation causes deletion (or multiplication) of these rungs. Sometimes the rung of one DNA molecule breaks off and attaches itself to another DNA molecule. Natural selection then determines if the mutated DNA survives better than the original DNA. If so, this mutated DNA creates a more adaptable organism. Without this constant experimentation and evaluation (mutation and natural selection), evolution would stop.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Replicate Experiments

        Evolution uses the scientific experimental method to discover the truth.


        Evolution is constantly experimenting - comparing the adaptive success of new DNA mutations against the success of their original DNA. As in science, evolution requires that the findings of its experiments be repeatedly replicated. This requirement for repeated replication of success eliminates unstable mutant DNA which can't successfully replicate its initial adaptive success.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Share Information

        Organisms survive because they genetically share adaptive information from one generation to the next.


        For example, all the information needed to create an elephant is coded in its 56 chromosomes. This also includes all the elephant's instinctual behaviors. That's an incredible amount of adaptive information passed by DNA from one generation to the next.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Have Contingency Plans

        In evolution, most of the information stored in DNA is contingency plans.


        Only a tiny amount of the information stored in DNA's base pairs tells how to make proteins. Far more of the information stored in DNA determines when and where these proteins are to be produced. Thus, DNA stores more information on contingency plans for "when" and "where" to do a task (e.g., produce protein) than it stores information on "how" to do it.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Use A Standardized Language To Share Information

        Every living cell stores all of the adaptive information that evolution has taught it by using the same "4 letter chemical code" (4 base pairs repeated billions of times) in its DNA.


        Without using this universal, standardized language to store information, evolution could not pass on adaptive information within the body or between generations.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Chance Directs Evolution

        Evolution is not guided by any plan; the direction it takes is determined solely by chance events.


        In evolution, there is no evidence of a grand plan, and that everything happened for a reason according to this universal plan. Instead, each organism's evolution was solely determined by random DNA mutation and natural selection.

        For example, our hominid lineage diverged from the ape lineage 7 to 8 million years ago. There were 21 hominid species - and 20 became extinct. Thus evolution tried 21 different experiments in creating hominids, and all proved to be evolutionary dead-ends - except our species, Homo sapiens. Our species has existed for about 100,000 years, and now we could be on the verge of extinction due to nuclear war or climate change.


      • [Evolutionary Principle] Expect Unexpected Consequences

        Making a small change in a complex system will often cause major unintended consequences.


        For example, when nature causes a DNA mutation or humans engineer a genetic modification, the unintended consequence can be: (1) a positive unexpected benefit (e.g. a recent spontaneous mutation in crayfish has produced a "super crayfish" that clones itself), or (2) a negative unexpected detriment (e.g. Monsanto genetically engineered its plants to make them resistant to the most used herbicide, Roundup [glyphosate], in order to help their plants survive during weed spraying. Monsanto's plants did become resistant to this herbicide, but this promoted the development of the same resistance in several weed species and insects. Now millions of acres of U.S. farmland have been destroyed by these pesticide resistent "superweeds" and insects.)

        [Evolutionary Principle] Nature Constantly Changes

        Everything in nature cycles and eventually dies.


        DNA has a built-in time bomb (shortening of its telomeres with each reproduction) that causes it to age. Old DNA doesn't divide: thus all organisms eventually die.

        Cancer occurs when DNA fails to age and keeps dividing until the resulting unchecked cell growth destroys the organism. Thus, nature prevents continuous growth; hence "no tree grows to heaven". Similarly, the competing forces in nature ensure that nothing remains the same - everything cycles.


      • Psychological Level:

        Humans are rational animals that evolution has given the ability to reason and learn. Wise, open-minded individuals that ask "why?" consistently outperform close-minded individuals that never question "why?". The hallmark of open-minded individuals is their curiosity and willingness to logically experiment and make mistakes in order to learn.

        Throughout human history, open-minded, inventive, quick learning individuals prospered better than close-minded, uncreative, and slow learning individuals. Open-minded individuals are more likely to gather relevant information and create contingency plans before they act.

        Wise individuals that keep a record of their progress (in diaries, business records, etc.) outperform those individuals that don't keep such records.

        Such records allow individuals to look back over the years to analyze their successes and failures. Otherwise, without these backup records, individuals must rely on their notoriously faulty memories. The most efficient record keeping involves using: (1) standardized language to avoid confusion, and (2) mathematically quantified data.

      • Social Level:

        War is the greatest threat to civilization and the accumulation of knowledge. Those that start wars never foresee war's unexpected consequences.

        History's Dark Ages occur when wars cause a collapse of civilization. The worst Dark Age occurred at the end of the Bronze Age around 1200 BC. For 40-50 years, war destroyed all the ancient Mediterranean civilizations (except Egypt's, which came close to collapsing). Almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed. These cultures (except Egypt) lost their literacy, political organization, and ability to build cities or conduct international trade. Their people barely survived and were forced to return to simple, small village life.

    • Sociability:

    • In a social species, social networking is vital for survival since it permits cooperation and sharing of information. Single celled organisms banded together to form multicellular organisms because of the additional survival benefits that such multicellular cooperation bestowed upon them.

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Combine Forces

        Sharing of genetic diversity speeds up evolution.


        The genetic sharing of DNA during sexual reproduction increases genetic diversity, which speeds up evolution. Even single-celled organisms, like bacteria, survive better in diverse communal groups (where they can exchange their DNA), rather than surviving as solitary organisms.

      • Psychological Level:

        Sociability increases one's chances for survival.

        Individual humans are too weak to survive solo; human survival requires that individuals cooperate for mutual benefit. Socially outgoing individuals, compared to solitary individuals, are more likely to acquire adaptive information from others in a social group. Also socially outgoing individuals belong to more social networks; hence are more likely to receive social support in times of need.

      • Social Level:

        Like all social species, humans form dominance hierarchies ("pecking orders").

        Humans survive better living in social groups. These groups permit specialization of labor which dramatically increases the group's productivity - hence its chances for survival.

        All social species, including humans, organize their social groups in terms of dominance hierarchies ("pecking orders"). Such dominance hierarchies unequally distribute power and wealth within the group. For humans, a child on the bottom of our dominance hierarchy is often chronically hungry, unsafe, or neglected.

        Nature establishes social dominance hierarchies as a cruel survival strategy which maximizes the adaptive advantages for those at the top of the dominance hierarchy at the expense of those at the bottom. This is often a matter of life and death because, when the social group is stressed by famine or disease, it is those at the bottom of a social dominance hierarchy who are most likely to starve or die.

        Social groups and nations that freely share adaptive information are the most likely to succeed.

        Nations that freely share information democratically support freedom of speech and of the press, universal education, social equality, social mobility, and social mixing of their members. This social sharing and mixing strengthens the social cohesiveness of these groups and improves their quality of life.

    • Courage:

    • An organism's primary objective is to stay alive; hence it must be able to differentiate safety from danger. Courage, like everything else, must be exercised in moderation. Too little courage results in cowardice, and too much courage results in foolish recklessness. [Fight-Flight-Freeze-Fantasize: There are three main coping strategies that all animals use: (1) "Fight" or angry attack, (2) "Flight" or fearful retreat, and (3) "Freeze" or depressive immobilization. Humans uniquely have a fourth main coping strategy, "Fantasize", in which they respond to stress by creating comforting delusions or false beliefs which are strongly held against all evidence to the contrary.]

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Remain Stable

        The DNA molecule is extremely stable.


        During evolution, natural disasters have caused repeated near-total mass extinctions of all life on earth; yet life has always recovered. Now DNA life forms have spread to virtually every corner of our planet, and humans have spread to every continent.

      • Psychological Level:

        Courage involves remaining calm and emotionally stable in the face of adversity.

        Courage doesn't mean rushing headlong into danger. The courageous person will assess the situation, and take the appropriate "fight/flight/freeze/fantasize" response that best solves the problem. There is no one response that is always right. Individuals must remain calm and emotionally stable while facing adversity - otherwise strong emotion can severely impair their problem-solving ability.

      • Social Level:

        Leaders must instill courage in their followers in order to maintain morale.

        Once a group loses its courage, and its morale is broken, it quickly becomes dysfunctional.

    • Physical Health:

    • In order to stay alive; an organism must maintain its physical health.

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Evolution's Only Goal Is Survival

        Evolution selects for traits that help organisms survive, but doesn’t necessarily find optimal solutions.


        The goal of evolution is to create living organisms - even if they aren't perfect. Thus, evolution has produced many types of organisms - some are in a gray area between living and nonliving (e.g., viruses), the majority are single-celled (e.g., bacteria), and a few are multicellular (e.g., most animals and plants). It is an error to believe that the sole purpose of evolution is to create more complex or intelligent organisms. In terms of global biomass, single-celled organisms far outweigh multicellular organisms. So, in that sense, evolution has favored single-celled, unintelligent organisms.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Avoid Extremes

        Nature hates extremes and rewards moderation.


        The optimal conditions for DNA survival are usually the midpoint between deficiency and excess. For example, DNA thrives at the temperature of liquid water, but is destroyed when water freezes or boils. Organisms flourish when they maintain their functioning in the midpoint between deficiency and excess. Nature punishes those organisms that slip into conditions of deficiency or excess.

      • Psychological Level:

        Our physical vices are leading causes of disability and death.

        Usually virtue is physically helpful; whereas vice is physically harmful. The modern vices of cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and unsafe sex are leading causes of physical disability and death. Chronic users of cigarettes lose 13% of their expected lifespan, chronic users of alcohol lose 29%, chronic users of cocaine lose 44%, chronic users of methadone lose 49%, chronic users of heroin lose 52%, and chronic users of methamphetamine lose 53% of their expected lifespan.

      • Social Level:

        Leading global risks:

        The leading global risks for mortality in the world are high blood pressure (responsible for 13% of deaths globally), tobacco use (9%), high blood glucose (6%), physical inactivity (6%), and overweight and obesity (5%).

        The leading global risks for burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are underweight (6% of global DALYs) and unsafe sex (5%), followed by alcohol use (5%) and unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene (4%).

        Globally, it appears that "modernization" increases addiction, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, unsafe sex, environmental destruction, and disastrous climate change. Thus, our modern civilization may severely impair our future evolution, or lead to our own extinction. [The Second Law of Thermodynamics: In physics, this law states that, in order to create order in one part of a system, more disorder (entropy) is automatically created in another part of the system. This law would predict that, in order to create and maintain our civilization, we will automatically create greater disorder and chaos in our environment. This is a chilling prediction given what is currently happening with climate change.]


    The "Big 5 Factors" of Personality as Shown In Dogs

    The same "Big 5 Factors" of personality found in humans can be found in dogs. This makes sense because dogs, like humans, are a social species.



    AGREEABLENESS VS. ANTAGONISM
    .
    Agreeableness ("Friend")
    .
    Dog is friendly towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog is friendly towards other dogs.
    When off leash, dog comes immediately when called.
    Dog willingly shares toys with other dogs.
    Dog leaves food or objects alone when told to do so.
    .
    Antagonism ("Foe")
    .
    Dog is dominant over other dogs.
    Dog is assertive with other dogs (e.g., if in a home with other dogs, when greeting).
    Dog behaves aggressively towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog shows aggression when nervous or fearful.
    Dog aggressively guards coveted items (e.g., stolen item, treats, food bowl).
    Dog is quick to sneak out through open doors, gates.

    CONSCIENTIOUSNESS VS. DISINHIBITION
    .
    Conscientiousness ("Self-Controlled")
    .
    Dog works at tasks (e.g., getting treats out of a dispenser, shredding toys) until entirely finished.
    Dog works hard all day herding or pulling a sleigh (if a "working dog" on the farm or in the snow). *
    Dog is curious.
    .
    Disinhibition ("Disinhibited")
    .
    Dog is boisterous.
    Dog seeks constant activity.
    Dog is very excitable around other dogs.

    INTELLECT VS. DECREASED INTELLECT
    .
    Open To Experience ("Open-Minded")
    .
    Dog is able to focus on a task in a distracting situation (e.g., loud or busy places, around other dogs).
    .
    Closed To Experience ("Closed-Minded")
    .
    Dog is slow to respond to corrections.
    Dog ignores commands.
    Dog is slow to learn new tricks or tasks.

    SOCIABILITY (EXTRAVERSION) VS. DETACHMENT
    .
    Sociability ("Approach")
    .
    Dog is attention seeking (e.g., nuzzling, pawing or jumping up on family members looking for attention and physical contact).*
    Dog seeks companionship from people.
    Dog is affectionate.
    .
    Detachment ("Avoidance")
    .
    Dog is aloof.
    Dog gets bored in play quickly.
    Dog is lethargic.

    EMOTIONAL STABILITY VS. NEGATIVE EMOTION
    .
    Emotional Stability ("Safety")
    .
    Dog tends to be calm.
    Dog is relaxed when greeting people.
    Dog is confident.
    Dog adapts easily to new situations and environments.
    .
    Negative Emotion ("Danger")
    .
    Dog is anxious.
    Dog is shy.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog exhibits fearful behaviors when restrained.
    Dog avoids other dogs.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards other dogs.
    Dog behaves submissively (e.g., rolls over, avoids eye contact, licks lips) when greeting other dogs.
    .
    Modified from Jones, A. C. (2009). Development and validation of a dog personality questionnaire. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Texas, Austin.

    * New items added by Phillip W. Long MD


    Personality Difference Between Dogs and Humans

    Dogs and humans are strikingly similar on 4 of the "Big 5 Factors" of personality. However, dogs and humans are quite different on the "Conscientiousness" factor - because the canine brain is designed for hunting, not building. That's why dogs don't build dog houses.

    The Brain and the "Big-5 Factors" of Personality In A Social Species

    The "Big-5 Factors" of personality represent basic brain functions in social species. For example, when a male approaches a female, the female must: (1) decide whether the male is friend or foe ["Agreeableness"], (2) decide if this represents safety or danger ["Emotional Stability"], (3) decide whether to approach or avoid him ["Sociability"], (4) decide whether to be self-controlled or disinhibited ["Conscientiousness"], and (5) learn from this experience ["Openness to Experience"].

    The "Big-5 Factors" of Human and Cat Personality

    Cats are a social species, but less social than dogs. Nevertheless, cats also show the "Big 5 Factors" of personality.



    The "Big 5" Dimensions of Personality and Personality Disorders

    The following diagram shows the relationship between the "Big 5" dimensions of personality and personality disorders. This diagram is based on the research of Sam Gosling, Jason Rentfrow, and Bill Swann, Gerard Saucier, Colin G. DeYoung, and Douglas Samuel and Thomas Widiger.


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    Personality Disorders Scoring Low On Agreeableness

    In personality testing, individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder often have a low Agreeableness test score.


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    Antisocial, narcissistic, and paranoid personality disorders on personality testing all have low Agreeableness scores. Another name for "low Agreeableness" is "Antagonism". These three personality disorders are closely related and can be thought of as forming an "Antagonism cluster" of personality disorders. All of history's worst tyrants had this "tyrant's triade" of antisocial + narcissistic + paranoid personality disorders.

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In The Antagonism Cluster Of Personality Disorders

    PERSONALITY DISORDER LACKING LACKING LACKING
    Antisocial Personality Respect (instead has disrespect) Responsibility (instead has irresponsibility) Honesty (instead has dishonesty)
    Narcissistic Personality Humility (instead has arrogance) Cooperation or generosity (had greedy manipulation) Kindness (instead has callousness)
    Paranoid Personality Trust (instead has suspiciousness) Forgiveness (instead has bearing grudges) Gratitude (instead has feeling victimized)




    Cleopatra Seducing Caesar and Mark Antony


    In the Antagonism (low agreeableness) cluster (of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Disorders), the males tend to be like Caesar and have more antisocial/psychopathic behaviors; whereas the females tend to be like Cleopatra and have more narcissistic behaviors. The core feature of this cluster of personality disorders is lack of empathy. These individuals seem to be unconcerned about how their actions harm or upset others.

    Agreeableness vs. Antagonism

    AGREEABLENESS ANTAGONISM
    Trust Suspiciousness
    Having trusting relationships with significant others (e.g., family, friends, coworkers, employer) Suspecting, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
    Forgiveness Bearing Grudges
    Forgiving other peoples’ mistakes; not bearing grudges or seeking revenge Blaming others; not forgiving someone’s mistake; seeking revenge
    Being Cool-Headed Being Hotheaded
    Not easily angered or quick to take offense; can calmly take criticism, blame or rejection Easily angered; quick to take offense; can’t take criticism, blame or rejection
    Humility Arrogance
    Being humble (not arrogant, boastful or excessively proud) Being boastful or excessively proud; offensive display of superiority or self-importance
    Cooperation And Generosity Manipulation And Greed
    Cooperating with others and doing a fair share of the work; unselfishly helping others Exploiting, conning or otherwise taking unfair advantage of others; selfish lack of generosity
    Appreciation Callousness
    Showing gratefulness, thankfulness, kindness, empathy, compassion, affection, or love Lack of guilt or remorse about causing others harm; indifference to the suffering of others
    Respect Aggression or Hatred
    Treating all people with respect and dignity; being polite; respecting people’s rights and freedoms Humiliating, intimidating or hurting others; showing defiance, contempt, hate or jealousy
    Honesty Dishonesty
    Not lying, stealing or cheating Lying, stealing, cheating
    Respect For The Law Disrespect For The Law
    Respect for normal law-abiding behavior Disrespect for normal law-abiding behavior
    Nonviolence Physical Violence
    No physical violence towards others Physical violence towards others (e.g., physical assault or property damage)


    Primate Evolution

    There appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:

    • The chimpanzees have evolved to be socially antagonistic, competitive, callous, and manipulative. Chimpanzees are the only primates (apart from humans) that wage organized war. Thus chimpanzee social behavior most closely mirrors the antagonistic behavior of the antisocial-narcissistic-borderline-histrionic cluster of personality disorders.

    • In contrast, the bonobos have evolved to be socially anxious, peaceful, cooperative, and loving. Thus bonobo social behavior most closely mirrors the negative emotion (anxious) behavior of the avoidant-dependent cluster of personality disorders.

    • Another separate evolutionary path was followed by the orangutans. They evolved to become solitary hermits. Thus orangutan social behavior most closely mirrors the detached behavior of the paranoid-schizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders.


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