|SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER||
Schizoid Personality Disorder F60.1 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization
Schizoid Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric AssociationLike all personality disorders, schizoid personality disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behaviour pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behaviour pattern tends to be stable. It causes subjective distress and problems in social performance.
Core FeaturesIndividuals with schizoid personality disorder grow up being socially and emotionally withdrawn. The core feature of this disorder is detachment (social withdrawal; intimacy avoidance; inability to feel pleasure; restricted emotional expression). This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) it begins no later than early adulthood, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder should not be diagnosed if this social and emotional withdrawal occurs exclusively during the course of a psychotic disorder, autism, or if it is attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition (e.g., temporal lobe epilepsy).
Lack Of Social Skills And Personality DisordersThere are certain social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with schizoid personality disorder lack the essential social skills of intimacy, sociability, and emotional expressiveness.
Social Skills That Are Lacking In Schizoid Personality Disorder
Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorder are so closely related that they are referred to as the "detached" cluster of personality disorders.
Social Skills That Are Lacking In The "Detached" Cluster Of Personality Disorders
Social FunctioningIndividuals with schizoid personality disorder often appear to be socially isolated and almost always choose solitary activities or hobbies. They have little interest in having sex with another person. They seem indifferent to the praise or criticism of others. They often seem socially inept or superficial and self-absorbed.
Schizoid TraitsIndividuals with schizoid personality disorder display a restricted range of emotions, and rarely experience strong emotions such as anger or joy. They rarely reciprocate gestures or facial expressions, such nods or smiles. They appear cold and aloof.
Ineffective TherapiesThe effectiveness of treatment for schizoid personality disorder is unknown because there are no randomized controlled trials. Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment. Most therapists believe that this disorder is very difficult to treat. Thus a trusting relationship with primary care physician who accepts the individual's emotional detachment is probably the best therapy.
Which Behavioral Dimension Is Involved?The ancient Greek civilization lasted for 1,300 years (8th century BC to 6th century AD). The ancient Greek philosophers taught that the 5 pillars of their civilization were: wisdom, courage, community, moderation, and justice. Psychiatry named the opposite of each of these 5 ancient themes as being a major dimension of psychopathology (i.e., irrationality, negative emotion, detachment, disinhibition, and antagonism). (Psychology named these same factors the "Big 5 dimensions of personality": "intellect", "neuroticism", "extraversion", "conscientiousness", and "agreeableness")
PrevalenceThe prevalence of schizoid personality disorder is 3.1%-4.9% of the general population. This disorder occurs slightly more commonly in males.
CourseSchizoid personality disorder may be first apparent in childhood and adolescence with solitariness, poor peer relationships, and underachievement in school, which may attract teasing from their peers. The course of this disorder is chronic.
Familial PatternSchizoid personality disorder is more common among biological relatives of those with schizophrenia or schizotypal personality disorder.
ComplicationsThe lives of individuals with schizoid personality disorder sometimes seem directionless, and they appear to drift in their goals. These individuals often react passively to adversity and have difficulty responding appropriately to important life events.
Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder:
Associated Laboratory FindingsNo laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.
Primate EvolutionThere appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:
Core Behaviors Of The Detached Cluster Of Personality Disorders
Religious HermitHistory is filled with thousands of stories of religious hermits who withdrew to a solitary place for a life of religious seclusion.
The core feature of the paranoid-schizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders is detachment. Individuals with these disorders are socially and emotionally withdrawn; thus prefer a solitary life.
Parental Behaviors Which Increase The Risk Of Developing A Personality DisorderResearch has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality disorder. Recent research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a personality disorder.
Setting Goals In Therapy
Lecture On Schizoid Personality Disorder
Free Diagnosis Of This Disorder
Other Web Pages
|Internet Mental Health © 1995-2011 Phillip W. Long, M.D.|