|OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER||
Anankastic [Obsessive-Compulsive] Personality Disorder F60.5 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric AssociationLike all personality disorders, anankastic [obsessive-compulsive] personality disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behaviour pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behaviour pattern tends to be stable. It causes subjective distress and problems in social performance.
Core FeaturesIndividuals with this disorder grow up with rigid perfectionism, intimacy avoidance, restricted emotional expression and perseveration. The core features of this disorder are: (1) extreme conscientiousness (rigid perfectionism), (2) detachment (intimacy avoidance, restricted emotional expression), and (3) negative emotion (perseveration - continuance of the same behavior despite repeated failures) . This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) it begins no later than early adulthood, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
Lack Of Social Skills And Personality DisordersThere are social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder lack the essential social skills of moderation, work-life balance, and flexibility. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is not statistically related to any other personality disorder.
Social Skills That Are Lacking In Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Employment-Economic FunctioningIndividuals with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder have excessive devotion to work, and poor work-life balance. Occupationally, they tend to be high achievers because of their excessive devotion to work. However their inflexibility, perfectionism, preoccupation with detail, and inability to delegate work may seriously interfere with their ability to complete a given task. They experience occupational difficulties when confronted with new situations that demand flexibility and compromise.
Obsessive-Compulsive TraitsIndividuals with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are rigidly perfectionistic and insist on everything being flawless and perfect, including their own and others' performance. They become preoccupied with details, organization, and order. They may show excessive procrastination and perseveration (stubborn continuation of the same behavior despite repeated failures). They are inflexible and unwilling to take risks. Individuals with this disorder often are inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values. They may be miserly.
DetachmentIndividuals with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder have difficulty in establishing and sustaining close relationships. Their emotional expression is restricted. They have difficulty expressing tender feelings, and rarely pay compliments.
Effective TherapiesThe effectiveness of treatment for this disorder is unknown because there are no randomized controlled trials. However, amongst clinicians, there is a consensus that improvements are usually seen only with long-term therapy.
Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?The ancient Greek civilization lasted for 1,300 years (8th century BC to 6th century AD). The ancient Greek philosophers taught that the 5 pillars of their civilization were: courage, helping others (service), justice, moderation, and wisdom. Psychiatry named the opposite of each of these 5 ancient themes as being a major dimension of psychopathology (i.e., negative emotions, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition/extreme conscientiousness and irrationality).
PrevalenceThe prevalence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder ranges from 2.1% to 7.9% in the general population. It is twice as common in males as females.
CourseObsessive-compulsive personality disorder has a chronic course.
ComplicationsIn obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, the individual's chronic preoccupation with rules, orderliness, and control seems to prevent many of the complications (e.g., drug abuse, reckless sex, financial irresponsibility) that are common to some other personality disorders.
ComorbidityPersonality disorders are an overlooked and underappreciated source of psychiatric morbidity. Comorbid personality disorders may, in fact, account for much of the morbidity attributed to axis I disorders in research and clinical practice. "High percentages of patients with schizotypal (98.8%), borderline (98.3%), avoidant (96.2%), and obsessive-compulsive (87.6%) personality disorder and major depressive disorder (92.8%) exhibited moderate (or worse) impairment or poor (or worse) functioning in at least one area."
Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder:
Associated Laboratory FindingsNo laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.
Primate EvolutionOf all the personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is unique; in that it is only found in humans and not in other higher primates (e.g., bonobos, chimps, orangutans). Only humans show perfectionism, over-work, and rigid inflexibility in problem-solving. Other primates will only work when they are hungry; whereas humans work regardless of their hunger. Other primates employ almost random problem-solving behaviors; whereas only human problem-solving can be perfectionistic and inflexible. Thus, in terms of primate evolution, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was the last personality disorder to evolve.
Core Behaviors Of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
The core feature of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is fear of failure. Individuals with this disorder desperately attempt to avoid failure by being perfectionistic, over-workng, being inflexibile and avoiding risk taking. Unfortunately all these coping strategies backfire, and only increase the risk of failure.
Setting Goals In Therapy
Free Diagnosis Of This Disorder
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