Internet Mental Health


Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale (Client Version)

Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale (Therapist Version)

Big 5 Factors Of Mental Illness And Code For This Disorder
(The "6th Big Factor" of Mental Health, "Physical Health", Is Coded Normal or Green)


Paranoid Personality Disorder occurs in 4.4% of the U.S. population. Individuals with this disorder have a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent. This disorder is characterized by moderate to severe antagonism (suspiciousness, bearing grudges). For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least in early adulthood. This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and very disabling or harmful to others.


There is insufficient evidence to justify using any psychological intervention or medication for adults with this disorder. Lacking such evidence, it would be prudent to only offer short-term crisis intervention, rather than long-term psychotherapy.


Paranoid Personality Disorder can persist for a lifetime. Individuals with this disorder are generally difficult to get along with and often have problems with close relationships because of their excessive suspiciousness and hostility. They usually are unable to collaborate well with others at work. They may have a need to have a high degree of control over those around them. Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to confirm their original expectations. They are often rigid, and critical of others, although they have great difficulty accepting criticism themselves.


Occupational-Economic Problems:

  • Causes significant impairment in academic, occupational and/or social functioning

  • Works poorly with others (highly critical of others, yet hypersensitive to criticism of self))

Antagonistic (Antagonism):


  • Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving her

  • Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of her friends or associates

  • Is reluctant to confide in others because of her unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against her

  • Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events

  • Perceives attacks on her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack

  • Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of her spouse or sexual partner

    Lack of Forgiveness:

  • Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights

SAPAS Personality Screening Test

Individuals with this disorder would answer "Yes" to the red questions:

      In general, do you have difficulty making and keeping friends?
      Would you normally describe yourself as a loner?
      In general, do you trust other people? (No)
      Do you normally lose your temper easily?
      Are you normally an impulsive sort of person?
      Are you normally a worrier?
      In general, do you depend on others a lot?
      In general, are you a perfectionist?

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Click Here For Free Diagnosis

Limitations of Self-Diagnosis

Self-diagnosis of this disorder is often inaccurate. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment.

However, if no such professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

Example Of Our Computer Generated Diagnostic Assessment of President Donald Trump

Editor's Comment

This website's focus has always been on educating the public about mental health. Our website's unique contribution has been our free, interactive psychiatric diagnosis program.

I have been a psychiatrist for 35-years, and for years I was one of four psychiatrists supervising the Vancouver General Hospital psychiatric emergency ward (which assessed more than 4,000 patients per year). It is my psychiatric opinion that both President Trump and Vladimir Putin have three highly interrelated disorders: Naracissistic, Antisocial, and Paranoid Personality Disorders. In addition, President Trump has severe Histrionic Personality Disorder.

President Trump's Diagnosis

Paranoid Personality Disorder 301.0

This diagnosis is based on the following findings:

  • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation (still present)

  • Has unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates (still present)

  • Reads hidden, demeaning, or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events (still present)

  • Persistently bears grudges (i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights) (still present)

  • Is quick to counterattack and react with anger to misperceived insults (still present)

  • This disorder did not exclusively occur during the course of a psychotic mental disorder

  • This disorder is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition

Treatment Goals:

  • Goal: be more trusting of others.
    If this problem persists: He will continue to assume that other people will exploit, harm, or deceive him, even when there is no evidence to support these suspicions. He will continue to feel that he has been deeply hurt by another person even when there is no evidence for this.

  • Goal: stop questioning friends' loyalty.
    If this problem persists: He will continue to be preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of his friends and associates, and continue to minutely scrutinize their behavior for evidence of betrayal or hostile intentions.

  • Goal: stop reading hidden, demeaning, or threatening meanings into benign events.
    If this problem persists: He will continue to misread honest mistakes made by others as deliberate attempts to harm him. He may also continue to misinterpret compliments as criticisms of him. Likewise, he may view an offer of help as a criticism that he is not doing well enough on his own.

  • Goal: be more forgiving of others.
    If this problem persists: He will continue to bear grudges and be unwilling to forgive the slights that he thinks he has received. Minor slights will continue to arouse major hostility.

  • Goal: don't react with anger to perceived insults.
    If this problem persists: He will continue to be quick to counterattack and react with anger to perceived insults.

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Paranoid Personality Disorder F60.0 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization

Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by excessive sensitivity to setbacks, unforgiveness of insults; suspiciousness and a tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous; recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding the sexual fidelity of the spouse or sexual partner; and a combative and tenacious sense of personal rights. There may be excessive self-importance, and there is often excessive self-reference.

ICD-10 International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questions

  • I don't react well when someone offends me.

  • Most people are fair and honest with me (False).

  • I've held grudges against people for years.

  • People often make fun of me behind my back.

  • I fight for my rights even when it annoys people.

  • I think my spouse (or lover) may be unfaithful to me.

  • I'm convinced there's a conspiracy behind many things in the world.

ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria (For Research)

A. The general criteria of personality disorder must be met:

  • Evidence that the individual's characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior deviate markedly as a whole from the culturally expected and accepted range (or 'norm').

  • The deviation must manifest itself pervasively as behavior that is inflexible, maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional across a broad range of personal and social situations (i.e. not being limited to one specific 'triggering' stimulus or situation).

  • There is personal distress, or adverse impact on the social environment, or both, clearly attributable to the behavior.

  • There must be evidence that the deviation is stable and of long duration, having its onset in late childhood or adolescence.

  • The deviation cannot be explained as a manifestation or consequence of other adult mental disorders.

  • Organic brain disease, injury, or dysfunction must be excluded as possible cause of the deviation.

B. At least four of the following must be present: (I have inserted Donald Trump's quotes and behaviors so that others might be better informed as to what to expect from President Trump.)

  • Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs:
      (E.g., "If someone tries to push me around, I push back as hard as I can so that they never try that again.")

      Donald Trump quotes: "For many years I've said that if someone screws you, screw them back. When somebody hurts you, just go after them as viciously and as violently as you can." [How to Get Rich, 2004)] ... "When you have an enemy, you have to f--- them, and spend your whole life f------ them, and when you have a friend, you love them, and nobody exists in the middle." [New York Magazine 9 November 1992] ... "But when somebody tries to sucker punch me, when they're after my ass, I push back a hell of a lot harder than I was pushed in the first place. If somebody tries to push me around, he's going to pay a price. Those people don't come back for seconds. I don't like being pushed around or taken advantage of." [Playboy, March 1990]

  • Tendency to bear grudges persistently, e.g. unforgiveness of insults, injuries or slights.
      (E.g., "I've held grudges against people for years.")

      Donald Trump quotes: "When you have an enemy, you have to f--- them, and spend your whole life f------ them, and when you have a friend, you love them, and nobody exists in the middle." [New York Magazine 9 November 1992] ... "I'd like to wish all of my friends--and even my many enemies--a very Merry Christmas and Happy New Year." Twitter - 24 Dec 2013 ... "To EVERYONE, including all haters and losers, HAPPY NEW YEAR. Work hard, be smart and always remember, WINNING TAKES CARE OF EVERYTHING!" Twitter - 31 Dec 2014 ... "Happy New Year to all, including to my many enemies and those who have fought me and lost so badly they just don't know what to do. Love!" Twitter - 31 Dec 2016 [Business Insider 31 December 2016]

  • Suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous.
      (E.g., "I don't believe most people are fair and honest with me.")

      Donald Trump quotes: "People are too trusting. I'm a very untrusting guy." [Playboy, March 1990] ... "The world is a horrible place. Lions kill for food, but people kill for sport. People try to kill you mentally, especially if you are on top. We all have friends that want everything we have. They want our money, our business, house, car, wife and dog. Those are our friends. Our enemies are even worse! You have to protect yourself in life." [Trump's book: "Think Big And Kick Ass" 2007] ... "The world is a mess. The world is as angry as it gets. ... The world is a total mess. The world is a total mess." [ABC News January 25 2017 ABC video] "

  • A combative and tenacious sense of personal rights out of keeping with the actual situation.
      (E.g., "I fight for my rights even when it annoys people.")

      Donald Trump behavior: "An analysis by USA Today published in June 2016 found that over the previous three decades, Trump and his businesses have been involved in 3,500 legal cases in U.S. federal courts and state court, an unprecedented number for a U.S. presidential candidate. Of the 3,500 suits, Trump or one of his companies were plaintiffs in 1,900; defendants in 1,450; and bankruptcy, third party, or other in 150." [Wikipedia] "The legal actions provide clues to the leadership style the billionaire businessman would bring to bear as commander in chief. He sometimes responds to even small disputes with overwhelming legal force. He doesn’t hesitate to deploy his wealth and legal firepower against adversaries with limited resources, such as homeowners. He sometimes refuses to pay real estate brokers, lawyers and other vendors. As he campaigns, Trump often touts his skills as a negotiator. The analysis shows that lawsuits are one of his primary negotiating tools. He turns to litigation to distance himself from failing projects that relied on the Trump brand to secure investments. As USA TODAY previously reported, he also uses the legal system to haggle over his property tax bills. His companies have been involved in more than 100 tax disputes, and the New York State Department of Finance has obtained liens on Trump properties for unpaid tax bills at least three dozen times." [ USA Today] "Hundreds allege Donald Trump doesn’t pay his bills" [ USA Today] "Trump, companies accused of mistreating women in at least 20 lawsuits" [ USA Today] "More than 100 lawsuits, disputes over taxes tied to Trump and his companies" [ USA Today] "Donald Trump: Three decades 4,095 lawsuits" [ USA Today] "Trump casino empire dogged by bad bets in Atlantic City" [ USA Today] "Dive into Donald Trump's thousands of lawsuits" [ USA Today]

  • Recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding sexual fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.
      (E.g., "I think my spouse (or lover) is unfaithful to me.")

  • Persistent self-referential attitude, associated particularly with excessive self-importance.
      (E.g., "People often make fun of me behind my back.")

      Donald Trump quotes: "'I'm the king of Palm Beach,' Trump told the journalist Timothy O'Brien for his 2005 book, TrumpNation. Celebrities and rich people 'all come over' to Mar-a-Lago, Trump's exclusive Palm Beach estate. 'They all eat, they all love me, they all kiss my ass. And then they all leave and say, 'Isn't he horrible.' But I'm the king.'" [The Atlantic June 2016] "I know more about ISIS than the generals do." [The Washington Post November 13, 2015]

  • Preoccupation with unsubstantiated "conspiratorial" explanations of events around the subject or in the world at large.
      (E.g., "I'm convinced there is a conspiracy behind many things that happen in the world.")

      Donald Trump quotes: "Donald J. Trump is calling for a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country's representatives can figure out what is going on." [Trump website 7 December 2015] ... "What can be simpler or more accurately stated? The Mexican Government is forcing their most unwanted people into the United States. They are, in many cases, criminals, drug dealers, rapists, etc." [Business Insider 6 July 2015] ... "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive." [Twitter, Nov. 6, 2012]

Paranoid Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric Association

A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by 4 (or more) of the following:

  • Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her.

  • Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.

  • Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her.

  • Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.

  • Persistently bears grudges, (i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights).

  • Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.

  • Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.

  • Does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia, a bipolar disorder or depressive disorder with psychotic features, or another psychotic disorder and is not attributable to the physiological effects effects of another medication condition.

  • This enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior must deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture.

  • This enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

  • This enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

  • Empirically Derived Taxonomy for Personality Diagnosis: Paranoid Personality Disorder

    (This section uses an alternative classification system to that of the American Psychiatric Association)

    These individuals:

    • Are chronically suspicious, expecting that others will harm, deceive, conspire against, or betray them.

    • Blame others for their own failures or shortcomings, and believe their problems are caused by external factors. Rather than recognizing their own role in interpersonal conflicts, they tend to feel misunderstood, mistreated, or victimized.

    • Are angry or hostile and prone to rage episodes.

    • See their own unacceptable feelings or impulses in other people instead of in themselves (i.e., "projection"). Thus they misattribute their hostility to other people.

    • Are controlling, oppositional, contrary, or quick to disagree, and to hold grudges. They often get into power struggles.

    • Tend to be self-righteous or moralistic, and often elicit dislike or animosity in others. They often lack close friendships and relationships.

    • May become irrational when strong emotions are stirred up, to the point of seeming delusional. They may “catastrophize,” seeing problems as disastrous or unsolvable.

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    Diagnostic Features

    Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder have a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent. This disorder is characterized by moderate to severe antagonism (suspiciousness, bearing grudges). This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) it begins no later than early adulthood, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder should not be diagnosed if its symptoms occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic Disorder, or if it is attributable to Substance Use Disorder another medical condition.

    Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder falsely believe that they are being victimized by others. They are highly critical of others, yet hypersensitive to criticism of themselves. They bear grudges and are unwilling to forgive the insults that they think they have received. Minor slights arouse major hostility, and the hostile feelings persist for a long time. Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to confirm their original expectations. They may be pathologically jealous.

    Like all personality disorders, Paranoid Personality Disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behavior pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behavior pattern tends to be stable.


    Paranoid Personality Disorder may be first apparent in childhood and adolescence with solitariness, poor peer relationships, social anxiety, underachievement in school, hypersensitivity, and peculiar thoughts and language. These children may appear to be odd or eccentric and attract teasing. The course of this disorder is chronic.


    Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder are generally difficult to get along with and often have problems with close relationships because of their excessive suspiciousness and hostility. They usually are unable to collaborate well with others at work. They may have a need to have a high degree of control over those around them. They are reluctant to confide in or become close to others because they fear that the information they share will be used against them. They may be litigious and frequently become involved in legal disputes.

    Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to confirm their original expectations. They are often rigid, and critical of others, although they have great difficulty accepting criticism themselves. They may exhibit thinly hidden, unrealistic grandiose fantasies, are often attuned to issues of power and rank, and tend to develop negative stereotypes of others, particularly those from population groups distinct from their own. More severely affected individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder may be perceived by others as fanatics and form tightly knit cults or groups with others who share their paranoid beliefs.

    A Political Warning From Forensic Psychiatry:

    The combination of Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Paranoid Personality Disorders is very dangerous. Historically, this particular combination of three personality disorders was seen in all of history's worst tyrants (e.g., Hitler, Stalin etc.). These tyrants lust for wealth, fame and power, and callously destroy everyone that opposes them. As they gain more power, they become more grandiose, power-hungry, and paranoid. If unopposed, these tyrants initiate wars, which result in the mass slaughter of innocent civilians. The tragedy is that the public is easily seduced by these tyrant's grandiose fantasies of national "greatness", and their paranoid hatred of some scapegoated minority (e.g., Jews, Muslims, immigrants, or refugees). These tyrants know that is easier to mobilize people by teaching them hatred and paranoia, than by teaching them love and forgiveness.


    Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder:

      Non-Personality Disorders

              Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders:
        • This disorder may be a premorbid antecendent of a psychotic disorder. In response to stress, individuals with this disorder may experience very brief psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours). If the psychotic episode lasts longer, this disorder may actually develop into delusional disorder or schizophrenia.
              Depressive Disorders:
        • Major depressive disorder
              Anxiety Disorders:
        • Agoraphobia
              Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders:
        • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
              Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders:
        • Alcohol and other substance use disorder frequently occur

      Personality Disorders

              Negative Emotion Cluster:
        • Avoidant personality disorder
              Detachment Cluster:
        • Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders
          Note: Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders are all closely related since they all share the same core feature of detachment. If an individual has one of these detached personality disorders, they are very likely to have another.
              Antagonism Cluster:
        • Narcissistic, borderline personality disorders

    Associated Laboratory Findings

    No laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.


    The prevalence of Paranoid Personality Disorder is 2.3%-4.4% of the general population. It occurs more commonly in males.


    Paranoid Personality Disorder is chronic.

    Familial Pattern

    Paranoid Personality Disorder is more common among first-degree biological relatives of those with Schizophrenia and Delusional Disorder, Persecutory Type.

    Controlled Clinical Trials Of Therapy

    Click here for a list of all the controlled clinical trials of therapy for this disorder.


    There is insufficient evidence to justify using any psychological intervention for adults with this disorder. Lacking such evidence, it would be prudent to only offer short-term crisis intervention, rather than long-term psychotherapy. Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment. Most therapists believe that Paranoid Personality Disorder is very difficult to treat.


    There are currently no medications approved by the FDA to treat this disorder. Vitamins and dietary supplements are ineffective for all Personality Disorders.

    A Dangerous Cult

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    Rating Scales

    Tyrants Have A Dangerous Combination of Personality Disorders

    All of history's worst tyrants had the same combination of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Psychopathic (Antisocial) Personality Disorders.

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In History's Worst Dictators

    Paranoid Personality Trust (had suspiciousness) Forgiveness (had bearing grudges) Being Cool-Headed (had being hot-headed)
    Narcissistic Personality Humility (had arrogance) Cooperation or generosity (had greedy manipulation) Compassion (had callousness)
    Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Respect (had disrespect) Responsibility (had irresponsibility) Honesty (had dishonesty)

    The Rise of a Tyrant

    In the beginning, the tyrant's followers believe that the tyrant's narcissism represents a confident, "strong man" who would lead their nation to greatness. The tyrant uses his own paranoia to mobilize his followers' fears and anger toward "the enemy". A tyrant will say and do whatever he has to in order to gain power. Once the tyrant gains power, it becomes obvious that all the tyrant ever cared about was his own fame, fortune and power. Once entrenched in power, the tyrant's deadly psychopathic (antisocial) traits become more apparent. First, the tyrant centralizes all political, military and economic power around himself and his cronies. Then the tyrant solidifies his power by imprisoning or killing all those that oppose him.

    Thus narcissistic-paranoid-psychopathic individuals should never be allowed to gain political power because of the great danger that they will become tyrants.

    Dictators have a total disregard for the casaulties they cause in war. To them, war is just a chess game, and soldiers are just pawns to be sacrificed. For example, during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon had 3 million troops, of which 1.7 million were killed. The following movies depict how Napoleon sacrificed his troops for his own personal glory and wealth.

    Waterloo (full movie)

    Napoleon (full movie)

    This second, full-length movie about Napoleon gives a better depiction of his personality. Note especially how, like all dictators, Napoleon would be diagnosed as having Narcissistic Personality Disorder using the following diagnostic criteria:

    An individual diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder needs to show at least 5 of the following criteria:

    • Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements).
      Napoleon didn't have to invade Russia. By 1812, Napoleon had conquered all of Europe except Russia. He could have stopped there, but decided to attack Russia solely to add to his conquests and to increase his glory.

    • Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love.
      Napoleon was consumed by his unlimited ambition to conquer all of Europe.

    • Believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions).
      Although of lowly birth, Napoleon always aspired to be a king and live in aristocratic splendor, associating only with European aristocracy.

    • Requires excessive admiration.
      Napoleon went to extremes to stiffle the free press and to constantly release propaganda that lionized him and his accomplishments.

    • Has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations.
      Napoleon sacrificed the lives of 1.7 million of his soldiers so that he could pursue his grandiose dream of conquering Europe.

    • Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends.
      Napoleon repeatedly exploited his wives and lovers for his own advantage.

    • Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others.
      Napoleon attacked Russia with 680,000 of his soldiers; yet only 22,000 survived this defeat. Nevertheless, Napoleon returned to Paris and tried to portray this collosal defeat as only a temporary retreat. He later raised another army and callously led them to be slaughtered at the battle of Waterloo. To Napoleon, his soldiers were just replaceable pawns in a military game of chess.

    • Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her.
      Napoleon was constantly comparing his glory to that of other European kings.

    • Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.
      Napoleon insisted on living like an European monarch, surrounded by the finest that money could buy. He showed no compassion for the poor.

    Were it not for the blind obedience of their followers, dictators could never continue their endless quest for fame, fortune and power.
    The story of Adolf Hitler will always be a testament to how extremely dangerous a leader with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder can be. The following documentary movie is an excellent summary of the senseless slaughter of millions caused by Adolf Hitler.

    Adolf Hitler (1 hour documentary)

    Hate-filled, Hitler-like individuals with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder must be stopped before they ever assume power.

    How They March Us To War

    The Philippines just elected a tyrant as their new president, Rodrigo Duterte. He said he has personally killed 1,700 criminals, and promises to kill 100,000 criminals in his first 6 months as President. After being elected, he said that he would give a medal to anyone who kills a drug dealer or addict.

    He has also promised that he would kill journalists - "Just because you're a journalist you are not exempted from assassination, if you're a son of a bitch." He even called the Catholic Bishops who criticized him "sons of whores".

    This Philippine tyrant was duly elected - just like Hitler was in Germany. Like Hitler, this new Philippine tyrant wants to immediately rewrite his nation's constitution.

    Just as he promised, in his first three months in office, the new Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte orchestrated the killing of more than 3,000 people. Most of the deaths were caused by police and government-sanctioned death squads.

    Philippino police now immediately execute suspected drug traffickers and addicts on the street without a trial. The Philippine President invites citizens to do likewise. Now Philippinos can freely kill their enemies as long as they claim their enemy is a drug trafficker or addict.

    In a democracy, tyrants get elected by promising to make their nation great again by restoring "law and order" (e.g., Hitler, Philippine President Duterte). The irony is that, once in power, the tyrant unleashes a rule of terror and bloodshed.

    The tragedy unfolding in the Philippines stands as a warning to not elect a leader that has the personality profile of a tyrant - namely the combination of narcissistic, paranoid and psychopathic personality disorders.

    Duterte has now accused his political enemies of having links to the drug trade. Apparently Duterte wants to have show trials which will find his political enemies guilty, so that he can have them executed. Tyrants always kill their political enemies, and Duterte is no different.

    A Good Life (Agreeableness)

    How does one live a good life?

    One approach to answering this question is to study the behavior of individuals who live troubled lives. Could the opposite of their maladaptive personality traits define how to live a good life?

    Research has shown that academic, vocational, economic, marital and social failure - plus crime - correlate highly to individuals having Antagonism (i.e., low scores on the Agreeableness personality dimension). The personality disorders that have the lowest scores on the Agreeableness personality dimension are the Paranoid, Narcissistic and Antisocial Personality Disorders.

    Could the opposite of the personality traits seen in Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Antisocial Personality Disorder be a clue as to how to live a good life? If so, the right side of the following table would define a good life. (This table uses DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.)

      Paranoid Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Paranoid Personality Disorder
      Antagonism, Suspiciousness: Altruism, Trust:
      Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving her Does not suspect, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
      Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates Is not preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of her friends or associates
      Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her Confides in others without unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against her
      Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events Does not read hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
      Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner Does not doubt, without justification, the fidelity of her spouse or sexual partner
      Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack Does not perceive attacks on her character or reputation that are not apparent to others
      Lack Of Forgiveness: Forgiveness:
      Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights Does not bear grudges, i.e., is forgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
      Narcissistic Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
      False Sense Of Superiority: Humility:
      Has a grandiose sense of self-importance Doesn't exaggerate own achievements and talents
      Is preoccupied with grandiose fantasies Has realistic goals (e.g., isn't preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love)
      Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes Doesn't show arrogant, haughty behavior or attitudes
      Feels special or high-status and wants to associate with only other high-status people Doesn't believe that she is so "special" and unique that she can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
      Requires excessive admiration Doesn't require excessive admiration
      Has a sense of entitlement Doesn't unreasonably expect especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with her expectations
      Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of her Isn't envious of others or believe that others are envious of her
      Callousness: Caring:
      Lacks empathy Shows empathy (e.g., respects the feelings and needs of others)
      Is interpersonally exploitative Doesn't exploit others (e.g., doesn't take advantage of others to achieve her own ends)
      Antisocial Personality Disorder The Opposite Of Antisocial Personality Disorder
      Violence: Nonviolence:
      Irritable and aggressive Good anger control
      Law-Breaking: Law-Abiding:
      Breaks the law Law-abiding
      Lacks remorse Feels remorse when appropriate
      Lies, uses aliases, or cons others Honest
      Irresponsible at work or with money Responsible at work and with money
      Impulsivity: Caution:
      Impulsive or fails to plan ahead Cautious; plans ahead
      Reckless disregard for the safety of herself or others Careful regard for the safety of herself and others

    A Bad Life (Antagonism)

    How does one live a bad life?

    The following table summarizes the personality traits of individuals scoring high on Antagonism - i.e., individuals with Paranoid, Narcissistic, Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorder. Individuals with one or more of these four personality disorders account for most of the harm done to society. (This table uses ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.)

      The Most Socially Disruptive Personality Traits Examples
      Narcissistic Personality Traits:
      Egocentricity "I am an extraordinary person." ... "Modesty doesn't become me."
      Self-indulgence "I will never be satisfied until I get all that I deserve."
      Continuous longing for appreciation "It's very important to me to stand out, and have my achievements recognized."
      Lack of consideration for others "I really don’t care if I make other people suffer."
      Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs "I don't react well when someone offends me."
      Persistent manipulative behavior "I find it easy to manipulate people."
      Paranoid Personality Traits:
      Excessive sensitivity to setbacks and rebuffs "I don't react well when someone offends me."
      Tendency to bear grudges persistently, e.g. unforgiveness of insults, injuries or slights "I've held grudges against people for years."
      Suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency to distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous "I don't believe most people are fair and honest with me."
      A combative and tenacious sense of personal rights out of keeping with the actual situation "I fight for my rights even when it annoys people."
      Recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding sexual fidelity of spouse or sexual partner "I think my spouse (or lover) is unfaithful to me."
      Persistent self-referential attitude, associated particularly with excessive self-importance "People often make fun of me behind my back."
      Preoccupation with unsubstantiated "conspiratorial" explanations of events around the subject or in the world at large "I'm convinced there is a conspiracy behind many things that happen in the world."
      Antisocial Personality Traits:
      Callous unconcern for the feelings of others "I will lie to or con someone if it serves my purpose."
      Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations "At times I have refused to hold a job, even when I was expected to."
      Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty to establish them "I haven't had close relationships that have lasted a long time."
      Very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence "I lose my temper and get into physical fights."
      Incapacity to experience guilt, or to profit from adverse experience, particularly punishment "I don't usually feel bad when I hurt or mistreat someone."
      Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing the subject into conflict with society "Other people are always lying about me."

    Parental Behaviors Which Increase The Risk Of Developing A Personality Disorder

    Research has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality disorder. Research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a personality disorder.

    "Low affection" was defined as: low parental affection, low parental time spent with the child, poor parental communication with the child, poor home maintenance, low educational aspirations for the child, poor parental supervision, low paternal assistance to the child's mother, and poor paternal role fulfillment. "Harsh parenting" was defined as: harsh punishment, inconsistent maternal enforcement of rules, frequent loud arguments between the parents, difficulty controlling anger toward the child, possessiveness, use of guilt to control the child, and verbal abuse.

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    Treatment Guidelines


    Setting Goals In Therapy

      Questions To Ask When Setting Goals

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)

      Example Of Setting Goals In Interviewing A Person With Paranoid Personality Disorder

      In The Past Week:
      • WHO: was your problem?
        "My friend."

      • EVENT: what did he/she do?
        "My friend hasn't called me in weeks. I think she's mad at me."

      • RESPONSE: how did you respond to that event?
        "I decided that, if she didn't call me, I wouldn't call her."

      • OUTCOME: did your response help?
        "No. she still hasn't called."

      • TRIGGER: what did you do that could have triggered this problem?
        "We had an argument, and she said some things that really hurt me. Ever since then I stopped calling her."

      • GOAL: what life skill(s) do you have to work on? (from checklist)
        "I want to work on: (1) Forgiveness ("forgiving other peoples' mistakes; not bearing grudges or seeking revenge"), and (2) Sociability ("being friendly; interested in social contacts and activities")."

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    Self-Help Resources

    Improving Positive Behavior

    Philosophers for the past 2,500 years have taught that it is very beneficial to start the day with goal-setting, and end the day with a brief review.

    This habit of planning your day in the morning, and reviewing your day in the evening, is a time-proven technique for more successful living.

    Note: When each of the following videos finishes; you must exit YouTube (by manually closing the window) in order to return to this webpage.

    Morning Meditation (5-Minute Video)

    Afternoon Meditation (Learn How To Have Healthy Relationships)

    Evening Meditation (5-Minute Video)

    Life Satisfaction Scale (Video)

    Healthy Social Behavior Scale (Video)

    Mental Health Scale (Video)

    Click Here For More Self-Help

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      "In physical science a first essential step in the direction of learning any subject is to find principles of numerical reckoning and practicable methods for measuring some quality connected with it. I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind: it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be."

      Lord Kelvin (1824 – 1907)

    • The best summary on bad research is given by Laura Arnold in this TEDx lecture. If you read nothing else about research, you owe it to yourself to watch this short video - it is excellent!

    • Canadian researchers who commit scientific fraud are protected by privacy laws: There are criminals in every community - even in the scientific research community (especially if a lot of money is at stake). Criminal researchers can hide their fraud behind outdated privacy laws.

    • The power of asking "what if?"

    • The active placebo effect: 2300 years ago, the Greek Stoic philosophers taught that it is not the objective event, but our subjective judgment about the event, that determines our behavior. The active placebo effect bears witness to this ancient wisdom.

    • Criteria For High Quality Research Studies

    • It is troubling that a recent study found that two-thirds of important psychological research studies couldn't be replicated. High quality research must meet the following criteria:

      • Randomized Controlled Trial:
        Ask: Was the trial randomized? Was the randomization procedure described and was it appropriate? The best research design is to have research subjects randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. It is essential that confounding factors be controlled for by having a control group or comparator condition (no intervention, placebo, care as usual etc.).

      • Representative Sample:
        Ask: Do the research subjects represent a normal cross-section of the population being studied? Many psychological research studies using university students are flawed because their subjects are not representative of the normal population since they are all W.E.I.R.D. (White, Educated, Intelligent, Rich, and living in a Democracy).

      • Single Blind Trial:
        Ask: Was the treatment allocation concealed? It is essential that the research subjects are kept "blind" as to whether they are in the experimental or control group (in order to control for any placebo effects).

      • Double Blind Trial (Better Than Single Blind Trial):
        Ask: Were blind outcome assessments conducted? In a double blind study, neither the research subjects nor the outcome assessors know if the research subject is in the experimental or control group. This controls for both the placebo effect and assessor bias.

      • Baseline Comparability:
        Ask: Were groups similar at baseline on prognostic indicators? The experimental and control groups must be shown to be comparable at the beginning of the study.

      • Confounding Factors:
        Ask: Were there factors, that weren't controlled for, that could have seriously distorted the study's results? For example, research studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness cognitive therapy in preventing depressive relapse forgot to control for whether the research subjects were also simultaneously receiving antidepressant medication or other psychological treatments for depression.

      • Intervention Integrity:
        Ask: Was the research study protocal strictly followed? The research subjects must be shown to be compliant (e.g., taking their pills, attending therapy) and the therapists must be shown to be reliably delivering the intervention (e.g., staying on the research protocol).

      • Statistical analysis:
        Ask: Was a statistical power calculation described? The study should discuss its statistical power analysis; that is whether the study size is large enough to statistically detect a difference between the experimental and control group (should it occur) and usually this requires at least 50 research subjects in the study.

        Ask: Are the results both statistically significant and clinically significant? The results should be both statistically significant (with a p-value <0.05) and clinically significant using some measure of Effect Size such as Standardized Mean Difference (e.g., Cohen's d >= 0.33). The summary statistics should report what percentage of the total variance of the dependent variable (e.g., outcome) can be explained by the independent variable (e.g., intervention). In clinical studies, the study should report the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB), and the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH).

          Number Needed To Benefit (NNTB): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to benefit compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute risk reduction.) Note: Statistically, the NNTB depends on which control group is used for comparison - e.g., active treatment vs. placebo treatment, or active treatment vs. no treatment.

          Number Needed To Harm (NNTH): This is defined as the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to be harmed compared with a control in a clinical trial. (It is defined as the inverse of the absolute increase in risk of harm.)

          Tomlinson found “an NNTB of 5 or less was probably associated with a meaningful health benefit,” while “an NNTB of 15 or more was quite certain to be associated with at most a small net health benefit.”

        Ask: Does the researcher accept full responsibility for the study's statistical analysis? The researcher should not just hand over the study's raw data to a corporation (that may have $1,000 million invested in the study) to do the statistical analysis.

      • Completeness of follow-up data:
        Ask: Was the number of withdrawals or dropouts in each group mentioned, and were reasons given for these withdrawals or dropouts? Less than 20% of the research subjects should drop out of the study. The intervention effect should persist over an adequate length of time.

      • Handling of missing data:
        Ask: Was the statistical analysis conducted on the intention-to-treat sample? There must be use of intention-to-treat analysis (as opposed to a completers-only analysis). In this way, all of the research subjects that started the study are included in the final statistical analysis. A completers-only analysis would disregard those research subjects that dropped out.

      • Replication of Findings:
        Ask: Can other researchers replicate this study's results? The research study's methodology should be clearly described so that the study can be easily replicated. The researcher's raw data should be available to other researchers to review (in order to detect errors or fraud).

      • Fraud:
        Ask: Is there a suspicion of fraud? In a research study, examine the independent and dependent variables that are always measured as a positive whole number (e.g., a variable measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from "1 = definitely false to 5 = definitely true" etc.). For each of these variables, look at their sample size (n), mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) before they undergo statistical analysis. There is a high suspicion of fraud in a study's statistics:

        • If the M is mathematically impossible (online calculator): This is one of the easiest ways to mathematically detect fraud. The mean (M) is defined as "the sum (Sum) of the values of each observation divided by the total number (n) of observations". So: M = Sum/n. Thus: (Sum) = (M) multiplied by (n). We know that, if a variable is always measured as a positive whole number, the sum of these observations always has to be a whole number. For these variables to test for fraud: calculate (M) multiplied by (n). This calculates the Sum which MUST be a positive whole number. If the calculated Sum isn't a positive whole number; the reported mean (M) is mathematically impossible - thus the researcher either cooked the data or made a mistake. A recent study of 260 research papers published in highly reputable psychological journals found that 1 in 2 of these research papers reported at least one impossible value, and 1 in 5 of these research papers reported multiple impossible values. When the authors of the 21 worst offending research papers were asked for their raw data (so that its reliability could be checked) - 57% angrily refused. Yet such release of raw data to other researchers is required by most scientific journals. (Here is an example of a research paper filled with mathematically impossible means.)

        • If the SD is mathematically impossible (online calculator): When researchers fraudulently "cook" their data, they may accidently give their data a mean and standard deviation that is mathematically impossible.

        • If the SD/M is very small (i.e., the variable's standard deviation is very small compared to the mean suggesting data smoothing).

        • If the SD's are almost identical (i.e., the variables have different means but almost identical standard deviations).

        • If the 4th digit of the values of the variables aren't uniformly distributed - since each should occur 10% of the time (Benford's Law).

        • If the researcher is legally prevented from publishing negative findings about a drug or therapy because that would violate the "nondisclosure of trade secrets" clause in the research contract (i.e., it is a "trade secret" that the drug or therapy is ineffective - hence this can not be "disclosed"). Approximately half of all registered clinical trials fail to publish their results.

        • If the researcher refuses to release his raw data to fellow researchers (so that they can check its validity). In order to be published in most scientific journals, a researcher must promise to share his raw data with fellow researchers. Thus a researcher's refusal to do so is almost a sure indicator of fraud.

        • If the research study's data contradicts the study's own conclusions - surprisingly, this often occurs.

    • Calling Bullshit In The Age of Big Data - "Bullshit is language, statistical figures, data graphics, and other forms of presentation intended to persuade by impressing and overwhelming a reader or listener, with a blatant disregard for truth and logical coherence." Reading the syllabus of this university course should be required reading for every student of mental health. This syllabus is absolutely fantastic!

    • Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations - American Psychologist 1999

    • Not All Scientific Studies Are Created Equal - video

    • The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment

    • Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    • Psychologists grapple with validity of research

    • Industry sponsorship and research outcome (Review) - Cochrane Library

    • 'We've been deceived': Many clinical trial results are never published - (text and video)

    • Junk science misleading doctors and researchers

    • Junk science under spotlight after controversial firm buys Canadian journals

    • Medicine with a side of mysticism: Top hospitals promote unproven therapies - Are some doctors becoming modern witchdoctors?

    • When Evidence Says No, But Doctors Say Yes

    • Cochrane Collaboration - the best evidence-based, standardized reviews available

    Research Topics

    Paranoid Personality Disorder - Latest Research (2016-2017)

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    Ancient Wisdom Relevant To Paranoid Personality Disorder

    Buddhism (Gautama Buddha 623–543 BCE)

    • "What you think, you become. What you feel, you attract. What you imagine, you create."

    • "Health, contentment, and trust are your greatest possessions."

    • "Do not believe in anything simply because you heard it... But after observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and live up to it."

    Judaism, The Bible, Islam

    • These religions don't specifically deal with the issue of suspiciousness. They simply tell believers to trust in God, for example: "Trust in the Lord with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding." (Proverbs 3:5)

    Comment by Phillip Long MD (Psychiatrist and Editor):

    It's A Wonder We're Still Alive

    The Man Who Saved The World

    The world barely avoided being annihilated in 1983. On 26 September 1983, the nuclear early warning system of the Soviet Union erroneously reported an incoming attack against Russia by American intercontinental missiles. Russia has a "launch on warning" policy whereby it launches its missiles against America on the first warning of an incoming American missile attack.

    Fortunately this missile attack warning was correctly identified as a false alarm by Stanislav Petrov, lieutenant colonel of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Petrov's decision to disregard the erroneous radar warnings is credited with having prevented a retaliatory nuclear attack on the United States and its NATO allies that could have resulted in large-scale nuclear war.

    Stanislav Petrov had the courage to disobey his military orders (to "launch on warning") because of his personal knowledge and convictions. He knew that launching a large-scale nuclear war would annihilate humanity, and he knew that the Russian early warning system could not be trusted.

    9 Times the World Was at the Brink of Nuclear War — and Pulled Back

    Due to human error, there have been nine times that the world was at the brink of nuclear war — but pulled back. Accidental false alerts which could trigger a nuclear war are not a rare occurrence. Given how incompetent our nuclear "launch on warning" system is - it is a miracle that we haven't already annihilated all life on earth.

    The 2 Men Who Could End The World

    America and Russia possess 93% of the world's nuclear weapons. Thus Valdimir Putin and President Trump are the only two people on earth who could single-handedly start a nuclear World War III and thus annihilate all life on our planet.

    The problem now is that the leaders of Russia and America have severe personality flaws that make them incapable of appreciating the enormity of harm that they may cause.

    Both Vladimir Putin and President Trump have Antisocial, Narcissistic, and Paranoid Personality Disorders.

    Why is the mental health of Vladimir Putin or President Trump important?

    The world's fate is now in the hands of two leaders who have the following severe personality flaws:

    Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    • Arrogance:
      Being boastful or excessively proud; offensive display of superiority or self-importance.

    • Manipulation:
      Exploiting, conning, or taking unfair advantage of others.

    • Callousness:
      Lack of guilt or remorse about causing others harm; indifference to the suffering of others.

    • Attention Seeking:
      Trying to be the center of attention; being overly dramatic or flamboyant.

    Paranoid Personality Disorder

    • Suspiciousness:
      Suspecting, without sufficient basis, that others are harming or deceiving him.

    • Bearing grudges:
      Blaming others; seeking revenge

    • Being Hot-Headed:
      Easily angered; quick to take offense; unable to take criticism, blame or rejection.

    Tony Schwartz wrote "The Art of the Deal" for Donald Trump, and spent 18 months in Donald Trump's office observing him in order to write this Donald Trump biography. In 2016, immediately before the presidential election, Tony Schwartz gave a scathing lecture entitled "The Truth About Trump" at Oxford University. Every American who voted for President Trump should watch this Oxford lecture video.

    Jan. 29, 2017: Alexandre Bissonnette, a white, 27-year-old, French-Canadian male far right extremist shot 25 Muslims in the back while they were at prayer in their mosque in Quebec City, Canada. Six were killed, 5 were hospitalized in critical condition, and the other wounded required only brief hospitalization. All of Canada mourned this barbaric act of senseless hatred against Muslims. Canadians are now asking how can the flood of far right anti-Muslim hatred coming into Canada from other countries be stopped? Take a good look at where the far right anti-Muslim hatred is taking us. [Racism can be untaught: How getting beat up taught a new Canadian not to be racist]

    P.S. In the past 2 years, Canada has accepted more than 40,000 Syrian refugees. Not one of these Syrian refugees has attempted a terrorist attack in Canada or America.

    A Counterargument To President Trump's Xenophobia:
    (Interview with Jack Ma, a Chinese businessman worth US$ 35 billion) "In the past 30 years, America has had 13 wars spending US$ 14.2 trillion. What if they spent a fraction of that money building up [America's] infrastructure, and helping white collar and blue collar workers? ... You are supposed to spend money on your own people. The money has gone to Wall Street. And what happened? In 2008, the financial crisis wiped out US$ 19.2 trillion in USA alone, and destroyed 34 million jobs globally. What if that money wasn't spent on Wall Street? What if that money was spent on middle America and the rest of the United States developing the industry there? So it's not the other countries stealing jobs from America, it is your strategy [over-spending on war and on Wall Street]. You did not distribute your money in the proper way."

    How The Rich Neglect The Poor

    Having Money Makes You Ruder And Less Empathetic

    Certain individuals have amassed great power and wealth. These fabulously rich individuals totally neglect the poor and the starving, and care only about accumulating more wealth, fame and power - even if it means oppressing half of humanity. They, and the corporations they control, do everything in their power to avoid paying their fair share of taxes. Although they may give millions to charity, many of their corporations avoid paying billions in taxes every year.

    The 62 Richest People Are As Wealthy As The Poorest Half Of The World

    The richest 1% now own a staggering portion of the world's wealth

    The top 0.1% of American households hold the same amount of wealth as the bottom 90%

    What the 1% Don't Want You to Know

    Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?

    Research has shown that there are 5 major dimensions (the "Big 5 Factors") of personality disorders and other mental disorders. There are two free online personality tests that assess your personality in terms of the "Big 5" dimensions of personality.

    This website uses these 5 major dimensions of human behavior to describe all mental disorders. (This website adds one more dimension, "Physical Health", but our discussion will focus on the first 5 major dimensions.)

    These major dimensions of human behavior seem to represent the major dimensions whereby our early evolutionary ancestors chose their hunting companions or spouse. To maximize their chance for survival, our ancestors wanted companions who were agreeable, conscientious, intelligent, sociable, emotionally stable, and physically healthy.

    Which Dimensions of Human Behavior are Impaired in Paranoid Personality Disorder?

    Agreeableness Antagonism       Antagonism
    Conscientiousness Disinhibition       Conscientiousness
    Intellect Decreased Intellect       Intellect
    Sociability (Extraversion) Detachment       Sociability (Extraversion)
    Emotional Stability Negative Emotion       Emotional Stability

    The 5 Major Dimensions of Mental Illness

    The Big 5 Factors or dimensions of mental illness each has a healthy side and an unhealthy side. Thus the Big 5 Factors are: (1) Agreeableness vs. Antagonism, (2) Conscientiousness vs. Disinhibition, (3) Intellect vs. Decreased Intellect, (4) Sociability (Extraversion) vs. Detachment (Introversion), and (5) Emotional Stability vs. Negative Emotion.

    The Following Will Only Discuss The Dimension of Mental Illness That Is Abnormal In This Disorder

    The problems that are diagnostic of this disorder are highlighted in   Pink  . Other problems that are often seen in this disorder are highlighted in   Yellow  .

    Treatment Goals for Paranoid Personality Disorder

    Description: Agreeableness is synonymous with compassion and politeness. Compassion reflects empathy, sympathy, and caring for others. Politeness reflects respect for others. Agreeable people are interested in others, and they make people feel comfortable. The Agreeableness dimension measures the behaviors that are central to the concept of JUSTICE and equality (fair, honest, and helpful behavior - living in harmony with others, neither harming nor allowing harm). Justice is then the public manifestation of love. High agreeableness is associated with better: longevity, helping others, giving to charity, job [team] performance, and marital success. (This dimension appears to measure the behaviors that differentiate friend from foe.)
    Descriptors: Compassionate, polite, warm, friendly, helpful, unselfish, generous, modest.
    Language Characteristics: Pleasure talk, agreement, compliments, empathy, few personal attacks, few commands or global rejections, many self-references, few negations, few swear words, few threats, many insight words.
    Research: Higher scores on Agreeableness are associated with deeper relationships. *MRI research found that Agreeableness was associated with increased volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals.
    "I am helpful and unselfish with others."
    "I have a forgiving nature."
    "I am generally trusting."
    "I am considerate and kind to almost everyone."
    "I like to cooperate with others."
    "I don't find fault with others."
    "I don't start quarrels with others."
    "I am not cold and aloof."
    "I am not rude to others."
    "I feel other's emotions."
    "I inquire about others' well-being."
    "I sympathize with others' feelings."
    "I take an interest in other people's lives."
    "I like to do things for others."
    "I respect authority."
    "I hate to seem pushy."
    "I avoid imposing my will on others."
    "I rarely put people under pressure."
    Description: Antagonism is synonymous with competition and aggression. Antagonistic people are self-interested, and do not see others positively.
    Descriptors: Manipulative, deceitful, grandiose, callous, disrespectful, unfriendly, suspicious, uncooperative, malicious.
    Language Characteristics: Problem talk, dissatisfaction, little empathy, many personal attacks, many commands or global rejections, few self-references, many negations, many swear words, many threats, little politeness, few insight words.
    * Callousness:
    "It's no big deal if I hurt other people's feelings."
    "Being rude and unfriendly is just a part of who I am."
    "I often get into physical fights."
    "I enjoy making people in control look stupid."
    "I am not interested in other people's problems."
    "I can't be bothered with other's needs."
    "I am indifferent to the feelings of others."
    "I don't have a soft side."
    "I take no time for others."
    * Deceitfulness:
    "I don't hesitate to cheat if it gets me ahead."
    "Lying comes easily to me."
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "People don't realize that I'm flattering them to get something."
    * Manipulativeness:
    "I use people to get what I want."
    "It is easy for me to take advantage of others."
    "I'm good at conning people."
    "I am out for my own personal gain."
    * Grandiosity:
    "I'm better than almost everyone else."
    "I often have to deal with people who are less important than me."
    "To be honest, I'm just more important than other people."
    "I deserve special treatment."
    * Suspiciousness:
    "It seems like I'm always getting a “raw deal” from others."
    "I suspect that even my so-called 'friends' betray me a lot."
    "Others would take advantage of me if they could."
    "Plenty of people are out to get me."
    "I'm always on my guard for someone trying to trick or harm me."
    * Hostility:
    "I am easily angered."
    "I get irritated easily by all sorts of things."
    "I am usually pretty hostile."
    "I always make sure I get back at people who wrong me."
    "I resent being told what to do, even by people in charge."
    "I insult people."
    "I seek conflict."
    "I love a good fight."
    ("Agreeableness vs. Antagonism" modified from "PID-5" by Kreuger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE and Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five)
    *MRI Research: Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.

    The Blueprint For Virtue Is Built Into Your DNA

    More than 2,300 years ago, the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384–322 BC), said: "What is the essence of life? To serve others and to do good." Aristotle taught that "doing good" was synonymous with living a life of virtue. He believed these virtues were in keeping with the laws of nature.

    Aristotle and other ancient Greek philosophers believed that the main virtues were justice, self-control/moderation, wisdom, sociability, courage, and physical health.

    Psychological research now has shown that these virtues do predict success and good health. It can be argued that these virtues represent basic evolutionary principles that are evident at every level of our existence: physiological, psychological, and social.

    DNA, The Basis of Life

    First let's examine the chemical basis of life - the DNA molecule.

    • The DNA molecule is the foundation of all life on earth. DNA is a double helix molecule that is like a spiral ladder with rungs. Each rung on this ladder consists of 2 base pairs; altogether there are 4 bases used by DNA. These four bases are abbreviated A, T, C, and G. These 4 bases form the "4 letter chemical code" in DNA which stores all the chemical information necessary for life.

    • The DNA molecule's spiral ladder has millions of rungs (base pairs). Part of DNA's chemical code is read by messenger RNA (which takes it out of the cell nucleus to the nearby ribosomes who use this code to create proteins). All the DNA chemical code in our 46 chromosomes is estimated to be about 3.2 billion base pairs long.

    • Proteins are built as chains of amino acids, which then fold into unique three-dimensional shapes that have different functions. Proteins compose structural and motor elements in the cell, and they serve as the catalysts for virtually every biochemical reaction that occurs in living things.

    DNA Replication

    • The mutual attraction between opposite bases (G-C and A-T) allows for DNA replication, since the DNA molecule can divide lengthwise into two halves. Then each half can attract the necessary opposite bases to create a complementary new strand of DNA.

    • This chemical replication only works because of the mutual attraction between opposite base pairs.

    Virtues Manifested at The Physiological, Psychological, and Social Levels

    • Justice:

    • In terms of survival, it is better that members of a species cooperate. With one's own species, cooperation requires that an individual neither harms nor allows harm (which is the definition of justice). Justice requires mutually beneficial interaction in which no party gains an unfair advantage. It ensures service to the common good - not just good for the privileged few. [Golden Rule: "The commandments, 'You shall not commit adultery,' 'You shall not murder,' 'You shall not steal,' 'You shall not covet,' and whatever other command there may be, are summed up in this one command: 'Love your neighbor as yourself.' Love does no harm to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law." (Romans 13: 9-10) "Do to others what you would want them to do to you." (Luke 6:31)].

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] The Most Adaptable Survive

        Evolution isn't survival of the fittest; it is survival of the most adaptable.

        In evolution, it is not the strongest or smartest organism that survives - it is the organism that can best adapt to its changing environment.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Live In Harmony

        An organism must be able to flourish in harmony with its environment.

        For example, all the cells in a healthy body grow in harmony. Cancer represents the harmful breakdown in these harmonious cellular relationships. Cancer results from mutated DNA that is self-destructive because it causes uncontrollable growth which kills the organism and itself.

        [Evolutionary Principle] No Species Escapes Extinction

        Nothing lives forever; nearly all species that ever lived are now extinct. They did not survive the sudden climate changes that caused mass extinctions of nearly all life on earth. Fortunately, a few species did survive the last mass extinction.

        There have been five mass extinction events in Earth's history. In the worst one, 250 million years ago, 96 percent of marine species and 70 percent of land species died off. Humans almost went extinct 60,000 years ago when only approximately 1,000 humans survived a global drought. Nowadays, many scientists are predicting that we're on track for a sixth mass extinction due to human destruction of the environment. This human-caused mass extinction of life on earth is the greatest injustice that humanity has ever created.

      • Psychological Level:

        Justice means neither harming nor allowing harm.

        Injustice is more than just being deceitful (e.g., lying, stealing, cheating). Justice requires that we neither harm nor allow harm to others and our environment. Justice is the public manifestation of love.

      • Social Level:

        Social justice requires that we treat others the way we want them to treat us.

        Evolution doesn't care if we are beautiful, strong, intelligent, or happy. Evolution only cares if we can flourish by living in harmony with others and our environment.

        Injustice occurs when groups or nations harmfully violate the rights of others. Once there is a breakdown in the rule of law, it is just a matter of time until the group or nation degenerates into corruption and a violent struggle for power.

        Humanity's survival now depends upon whether love, brotherhood, and peace can overcome hate, nationalism, and war.

    • Self-Control:

    • To survive, all organisms have homeostatic mechanisms that strive to balance their functioning at an optimal level between excess and deficiency. Some organisms have strong homeostatic mechanisms; hence their functioning is highly regulated and orderly. Other organisms have weak homeostatic mechanisms; hence their functioning is weakly regulated and disorderly or chaotic. [Golden Mean: The Greek poet Hesiod (c.700 bc) said that "moderation is best in all things'. Ancient Greek philosophers taught that self-control or moderation is about finding the Golden Mean or balance between two extremes, excess and deficiency.]

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Maintain Stability By Self-Regulation (Homeostasis)

        Life involves constant change, and all organisms evolve ways to moderate these changes to maintain their stability (i.e., homeostasis). The goal of this homeostasis is to maintain optimal conditions for life (i.e., to avoid deficiency or excess).

        For example, DNA is self-controlling; it moderates its functioning by turning itself on or off depending upon its environment. Thus, by moderating its own functioning, DNA can better survive environmental change. However, there is a limit to how much change organisms can withstand (e.g., a fish out of water).

        [Evolutionary Principle] Certain Vices Shorten Life

        Certain excesses (smoking, obesity, and alcohol) damage DNA; hence must be seen as vices.

        "A major cause of aging is 'oxidative stress.' It is the damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids (fats) caused by oxidants, which are highly reactive substances containing oxygen. These oxidants are produced normally when we breathe, and also result from inflammation, infection, and consumption of alcohol and cigarettes. In one study, scientists exposed worms to two substances that neutralize oxidants, and the worms' lifespan increased an average 44%.

        Another factor in aging is 'glycation.' It happens when glucose, the main sugar we use as energy, binds to some of our DNA, proteins, and lipids, leaving them unable to do their jobs. The problem becomes worse as we get older, causing body tissues to malfunction, resulting in disease and death. Glycation may explain why studies in laboratory animals indicate that restricting calorie intake extends lifespan." [reference]

      • Psychological Level:

        Self-control and moderation in all things (i.e., good behavioral homeostasis) is the core feature of conscientiousness.

        Conscientious individuals have good homeostatic control of their behavior - it is neither excessively inhibited nor disinhibited. They are careful, responsible, hard-working, cautious, focused, and organized. In contrast, individuals lacking conscientiousness are careless, irresponsible, impulsive, easily distracted, and disorganized.

      • Social Level:

        Vices (behavioral excesses or deficiencies) must be controlled or they will destroy a group or nation.

        When a group or nation is overcome by its excesses (e.g. alcoholism, drug abuse, or corruption) or deficiencies (e.g. injustice or massive poverty); it withers and dies.

    • Wisdom:

    • Learning requires attention, reasoning, and memory. Of the 21 different hominids that have existed; 20 are now extinct. Only our species, homo sapiens, has survived. It appears evolution has favored our species, compared to the extinct hominids, because of our superior adaptability and ability to learn. [Our Attention May Blind Us: The biggest problem with learning is that our selective attention may blind us to much of what we see. We create our own reality - seeing only what we are interested in seeing. Thus we are blinded by our desires and biases.].

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Experiment To Improve Adaptation

        Evolution creates better adapted organisms by using mutation and natural selection.

        The sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA preserves the specific order of the rungs on the DNA ladder. Chance mutation causes deletion (or multiplication) of these rungs. Sometimes the rung of one DNA molecule breaks off and attaches itself to another DNA molecule. Natural selection then determines if the mutated DNA survives better than the original DNA. If so, this mutated DNA creates a more adaptable organism. Without this constant experimentation and evaluation (mutation and natural selection), evolution would stop.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Replicate Experiments

        Evolution uses the scientific experimental method to discover the truth.

        Evolution is constantly experimenting - comparing the adaptive success of new DNA mutations against the success of their original DNA. As in science, evolution requires that the findings of its experiments be repeatedly replicated. This requirement for repeated replication of success eliminates unstable mutant DNA which can't successfully replicate its initial adaptive success.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Share Information

        Organisms survive because they genetically share adaptive information from one generation to the next.

        For example, all the information needed to create an elephant is coded in its 56 chromosomes. This also includes all the elephant's instinctual behaviors. That's an incredible amount of adaptive information passed by DNA from one generation to the next.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Have Contingency Plans

        In evolution, most of the information stored in DNA is contingency plans.

        Only a tiny amount of the information stored in DNA's base pairs tells how to make proteins. Far more of the information stored in DNA determines when and where these proteins are to be produced. Thus, DNA stores more information on contingency plans for "when" and "where" to do a task (e.g., produce protein) than it stores information on "how" to do it.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Use A Standardized Language To Share Information

        Every living cell stores all of the adaptive information that evolution has taught it by using the same "4 letter chemical code" (4 base pairs repeated billions of times) in its DNA.

        Without using this universal, standardized language to store information, evolution could not pass on adaptive information within the body or between generations.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Chance Directs Evolution

        Evolution is not guided by any plan; the direction it takes is determined solely by chance events.

        In evolution, there is no evidence of a grand plan, and that everything happened for a reason according to this universal plan. Instead, each organism's evolution was solely determined by random DNA mutation and natural selection.

        For example, our hominid lineage diverged from the ape lineage 7 to 8 million years ago. There were 21 hominid species - and 20 became extinct. Thus evolution tried 21 different experiments in creating hominids, and all proved to be evolutionary dead-ends - except our species, Homo sapiens. Our species has existed for about 100,000 years, and now we could be on the verge of extinction due to nuclear war or climate change.

      • [Evolutionary Principle] Expect Unexpected Consequences

        Making a small change in a complex system will often cause major unintended consequences.

        For example, when nature causes a DNA mutation or humans engineer a genetic modification, the unintended consequence can be: (1) a positive unexpected benefit (e.g. a recent spontaneous mutation in crayfish has produced a "super crayfish" that clones itself), or (2) a negative unexpected detriment (e.g. Monsanto genetically engineered its plants to make them resistant to the most used herbicide, Roundup [glyphosate], in order to help their plants survive during weed spraying. Monsanto's plants did become resistant to this herbicide, but this promoted the development of the same resistance in several weed species and insects. Now millions of acres of U.S. farmland have been destroyed by these pesticide resistent "superweeds" and insects.)

        [Evolutionary Principle] Nature Constantly Changes

        Everything in nature cycles and eventually dies.

        DNA has a built-in time bomb (shortening of its telomeres with each reproduction) that causes it to age. Old DNA doesn't divide: thus all organisms eventually die.

        Cancer occurs when DNA fails to age and keeps dividing until the resulting unchecked cell growth destroys the organism. Thus, nature prevents continuous growth; hence "no tree grows to heaven". Similarly, the competing forces in nature ensure that nothing remains the same - everything cycles.

      • Psychological Level:

        Humans are rational animals that evolution has given the ability to reason and learn. Wise, open-minded individuals that ask "why?" consistently outperform close-minded individuals that never question "why?". The hallmark of open-minded individuals is their curiosity and willingness to logically experiment and make mistakes in order to learn.

        Throughout human history, open-minded, inventive, quick learning individuals prospered better than close-minded, uncreative, and slow learning individuals. Open-minded individuals are more likely to gather relevant information and create contingency plans before they act.

        Wise individuals that keep a record of their progress (in diaries, business records, etc.) outperform those individuals that don't keep such records.

        Such records allow individuals to look back over the years to analyze their successes and failures. Otherwise, without these backup records, individuals must rely on their notoriously faulty memories. The most efficient record keeping involves using: (1) standardized language to avoid confusion, and (2) mathematically quantified data.

      • Social Level:

        War is the greatest threat to civilization and the accumulation of knowledge. Those that start wars never foresee war's unexpected consequences.

        History's Dark Ages occur when wars cause a collapse of civilization. The worst Dark Age occurred at the end of the Bronze Age around 1200 BC. For 40-50 years, war destroyed all the ancient Mediterranean civilizations (except Egypt's, which came close to collapsing). Almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed. These cultures (except Egypt) lost their literacy, political organization, and ability to build cities or conduct international trade. Their people barely survived and were forced to return to simple, small village life.

    • Sociability:

    • In a social species, social networking is vital for survival since it permits cooperation and sharing of information. Single celled organisms banded together to form multicellular organisms because of the additional survival benefits that such multicellular cooperation bestowed upon them.

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Combine Forces

        Sharing of genetic diversity speeds up evolution.

        The genetic sharing of DNA during sexual reproduction increases genetic diversity, which speeds up evolution. Even single-celled organisms, like bacteria, survive better in diverse communal groups (where they can exchange their DNA), rather than surviving as solitary organisms.

      • Psychological Level:

        Sociability increases one's chances for survival.

        Individual humans are too weak to survive solo; human survival requires that individuals cooperate for mutual benefit. Socially outgoing individuals, compared to solitary individuals, are more likely to acquire adaptive information from others in a social group. Also socially outgoing individuals belong to more social networks; hence are more likely to receive social support in times of need.

      • Social Level:

        Like all social species, humans form dominance hierarchies ("pecking orders").

        Humans survive better living in social groups. These groups permit specialization of labor which dramatically increases the group's productivity - hence its chances for survival.

        All social species, including humans, organize their social groups in terms of dominance hierarchies ("pecking orders"). Such dominance hierarchies unequally distribute power and wealth within the group. For humans, a child on the bottom of our dominance hierarchy is often chronically hungry, unsafe, or neglected.

        Nature establishes social dominance hierarchies as a cruel survival strategy which maximizes the adaptive advantages for those at the top of the dominance hierarchy at the expense of those at the bottom. This is often a matter of life and death because, when the social group is stressed by famine or disease, it is those at the bottom of a social dominance hierarchy who are most likely to starve or die.

        Social groups and nations that freely share adaptive information are the most likely to succeed.

        Nations that freely share information democratically support freedom of speech and of the press, universal education, social equality, social mobility, and social mixing of their members. This social sharing and mixing strengthens the social cohesiveness of these groups and improves their quality of life.

    • Courage:

    • An organism's primary objective is to stay alive; hence it must be able to differentiate safety from danger. Courage, like everything else, must be exercised in moderation. Too little courage results in cowardice, and too much courage results in foolish recklessness. [Fight-Flight-Freeze-Fantasize: There are three main coping strategies that all animals use: (1) "Fight" or angry attack, (2) "Flight" or fearful retreat, and (3) "Freeze" or depressive immobilization. Humans uniquely have a fourth main coping strategy, "Fantasize", in which they respond to stress by creating comforting delusions or false beliefs which are strongly held against all evidence to the contrary.]

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Remain Stable

        The DNA molecule is extremely stable.

        During evolution, natural disasters have caused repeated near-total mass extinctions of all life on earth; yet life has always recovered. Now DNA life forms have spread to virtually every corner of our planet, and humans have spread to every continent.

      • Psychological Level:

        Courage involves remaining calm and emotionally stable in the face of adversity.

        Courage doesn't mean rushing headlong into danger. The courageous person will assess the situation, and take the appropriate "fight/flight/freeze/fantasize" response that best solves the problem. There is no one response that is always right. Individuals must remain calm and emotionally stable while facing adversity - otherwise strong emotion can severely impair their problem-solving ability.

      • Social Level:

        Leaders must instill courage in their followers in order to maintain morale.

        Once a group loses its courage, and its morale is broken, it quickly becomes dysfunctional.

    • Physical Health:

    • In order to stay alive; an organism must maintain its physical health.

      • Physiological Level:

        [Evolutionary Principle] Evolution's Only Goal Is Survival

        Evolution selects for traits that help organisms survive, but doesn’t necessarily find optimal solutions.

        The goal of evolution is to create living organisms - even if they aren't perfect. Thus, evolution has produced many types of organisms - some are in a gray area between living and nonliving (e.g., viruses), the majority are single-celled (e.g., bacteria), and a few are multicellular (e.g., most animals and plants). It is an error to believe that the sole purpose of evolution is to create more complex or intelligent organisms. In terms of global biomass, single-celled organisms far outweigh multicellular organisms. So, in that sense, evolution has favored single-celled, unintelligent organisms.

        [Evolutionary Principle] Avoid Extremes

        Nature hates extremes and rewards moderation.

        The optimal conditions for DNA survival are usually the midpoint between deficiency and excess. For example, DNA thrives at the temperature of liquid water, but is destroyed when water freezes or boils. Organisms flourish when they maintain their functioning in the midpoint between deficiency and excess. Nature punishes those organisms that slip into conditions of deficiency or excess.

      • Psychological Level:

        Our physical vices are leading causes of disability and death.

        Usually virtue is physically helpful; whereas vice is physically harmful. The modern vices of cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and unsafe sex are leading causes of physical disability and death. Chronic users of cigarettes lose 13% of their expected lifespan, chronic users of alcohol lose 29%, chronic users of cocaine lose 44%, chronic users of methadone lose 49%, chronic users of heroin lose 52%, and chronic users of methamphetamine lose 53% of their expected lifespan.

      • Social Level:

        Leading global risks:

        The leading global risks for mortality in the world are high blood pressure (responsible for 13% of deaths globally), tobacco use (9%), high blood glucose (6%), physical inactivity (6%), and overweight and obesity (5%).

        The leading global risks for burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are underweight (6% of global DALYs) and unsafe sex (5%), followed by alcohol use (5%) and unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene (4%).

        Globally, it appears that "modernization" increases addiction, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, unsafe sex, environmental destruction, and disastrous climate change. Thus, our modern civilization may severely impair our future evolution, or lead to our own extinction. [The Second Law of Thermodynamics: In physics, this law states that, in order to create order in one part of a system, more disorder (entropy) is automatically created in another part of the system. This law would predict that, in order to create and maintain our civilization, we will automatically create greater disorder and chaos in our environment. This is a chilling prediction given what is currently happening with climate change.]

    The "Big 5 Factors" of Personality as Shown In Dogs

    The same "Big 5 Factors" of personality found in humans can be found in dogs. This makes sense because dogs, like humans, are a social species.

    Agreeableness ("Friend")
    Dog is friendly towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog is friendly towards other dogs.
    When off leash, dog comes immediately when called.
    Dog willingly shares toys with other dogs.
    Dog leaves food or objects alone when told to do so.
    Antagonism ("Foe")
    Dog is dominant over other dogs.
    Dog is assertive with other dogs (e.g., if in a home with other dogs, when greeting).
    Dog behaves aggressively towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog shows aggression when nervous or fearful.
    Dog aggressively guards coveted items (e.g., stolen item, treats, food bowl).
    Dog is quick to sneak out through open doors, gates.

    Conscientiousness ("Self-Controlled")
    Dog works at tasks (e.g., getting treats out of a dispenser, shredding toys) until entirely finished.
    Dog works hard all day herding or pulling a sleigh (if a "working dog" on the farm or in the snow). *
    Dog is curious.
    Disinhibition ("Disinhibited")
    Dog is boisterous.
    Dog seeks constant activity.
    Dog is very excitable around other dogs.

    Open To Experience ("Open-Minded")
    Dog is able to focus on a task in a distracting situation (e.g., loud or busy places, around other dogs).
    Closed To Experience ("Closed-Minded")
    Dog is slow to respond to corrections.
    Dog ignores commands.
    Dog is slow to learn new tricks or tasks.

    Sociability ("Approach")
    Dog is attention seeking (e.g., nuzzling, pawing or jumping up on family members looking for attention and physical contact).*
    Dog seeks companionship from people.
    Dog is affectionate.
    Detachment ("Avoidance")
    Dog is aloof.
    Dog gets bored in play quickly.
    Dog is lethargic.

    Emotional Stability ("Safety")
    Dog tends to be calm.
    Dog is relaxed when greeting people.
    Dog is confident.
    Dog adapts easily to new situations and environments.
    Negative Emotion ("Danger")
    Dog is anxious.
    Dog is shy.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards unfamiliar people.
    Dog exhibits fearful behaviors when restrained.
    Dog avoids other dogs.
    Dog behaves fearfully towards other dogs.
    Dog behaves submissively (e.g., rolls over, avoids eye contact, licks lips) when greeting other dogs.
    Modified from Jones, A. C. (2009). Development and validation of a dog personality questionnaire. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Texas, Austin.

    * New items added by Phillip W. Long MD

    Personality Difference Between Dogs and Humans

    Dogs and humans are strikingly similar on 4 of the "Big 5 Factors" of personality. However, dogs and humans are quite different on the "Conscientiousness" factor - because the canine brain is designed for hunting, not building. That's why dogs don't build dog houses.

    The Brain and the "Big-5 Factors" of Personality In A Social Species

    The "Big-5 Factors" of personality represent basic brain functions in social species. For example, when a male approaches a female, the female must: (1) decide whether the male is friend or foe ["Agreeableness"], (2) decide if this represents safety or danger ["Emotional Stability"], (3) decide whether to approach or avoid him ["Sociability"], (4) decide whether to be self-controlled or disinhibited ["Conscientiousness"], and (5) learn from this experience ["Openness to Experience"].

    The "Big-5 Factors" of Human and Cat Personality

    Cats are a social species, but less social than dogs. Nevertheless, cats also show the "Big 5 Factors" of personality.

    The "Big 5" Dimensions of Personality and Personality Disorders

    The following diagram shows the relationship between the "Big 5" dimensions of personality and personality disorders. This diagram is based on the research of Sam Gosling, Jason Rentfrow, and Bill Swann, Gerard Saucier, Colin G. DeYoung, and Douglas Samuel and Thomas Widiger.

    Enlarge Image

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    Personality Disorders Scoring Low On Agreeableness

    In personality testing, individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder often have a low Agreeableness test score.

    Enlarge Image

    Antisocial, narcissistic, and paranoid personality disorders on personality testing all have low Agreeableness scores. Another name for "low Agreeableness" is "Antagonism". These three personality disorders are closely related and can be thought of as forming an "Antagonism cluster" of personality disorders. All of history's worst tyrants had this "tyrant's triade" of antisocial + narcissistic + paranoid personality disorders.

    Social Skills That Are Lacking In The Antagonism Cluster Of Personality Disorders

    Antisocial Personality Respect (instead has disrespect) Responsibility (instead has irresponsibility) Honesty (instead has dishonesty)
    Narcissistic Personality Humility (instead has arrogance) Cooperation or generosity (had greedy manipulation) Kindness (instead has callousness)
    Paranoid Personality Trust (instead has suspiciousness) Forgiveness (instead has bearing grudges) Gratitude (instead has feeling victimized)

    Cleopatra Seducing Caesar and Mark Antony

    In the Antagonism (low agreeableness) cluster (of Narcissistic + Paranoid + Antisocial/Psychopathic Personality Disorders), the males tend to be like Caesar and have more antisocial/psychopathic behaviors; whereas the females tend to be like Cleopatra and have more narcissistic behaviors. The core feature of this cluster of personality disorders is lack of empathy. These individuals seem to be unconcerned about how their actions harm or upset others.

    Agreeableness vs. Antagonism

    Trust Suspiciousness
    Having trusting relationships with significant others (e.g., family, friends, coworkers, employer) Suspecting, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
    Forgiveness Bearing Grudges
    Forgiving other peoples’ mistakes; not bearing grudges or seeking revenge Blaming others; not forgiving someone’s mistake; seeking revenge
    Being Cool-Headed Being Hotheaded
    Not easily angered or quick to take offense; can calmly take criticism, blame or rejection Easily angered; quick to take offense; can’t take criticism, blame or rejection
    Humility Arrogance
    Being humble (not arrogant, boastful or excessively proud) Being boastful or excessively proud; offensive display of superiority or self-importance
    Cooperation And Generosity Manipulation And Greed
    Cooperating with others and doing a fair share of the work; unselfishly helping others Exploiting, conning or otherwise taking unfair advantage of others; selfish lack of generosity
    Appreciation Callousness
    Showing gratefulness, thankfulness, kindness, empathy, compassion, affection, or love Lack of guilt or remorse about causing others harm; indifference to the suffering of others
    Respect Aggression or Hatred
    Treating all people with respect and dignity; being polite; respecting people’s rights and freedoms Humiliating, intimidating or hurting others; showing defiance, contempt, hate or jealousy
    Honesty Dishonesty
    Not lying, stealing or cheating Lying, stealing, cheating
    Respect For The Law Disrespect For The Law
    Respect for normal law-abiding behavior Disrespect for normal law-abiding behavior
    Nonviolence Physical Violence
    No physical violence towards others Physical violence towards others (e.g., physical assault or property damage)

    Primate Evolution

    There appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:

    • The chimpanzees have evolved to be socially antagonistic, competitive, callous, and manipulative. Chimpanzees are the only primates (apart from humans) that wage organized war. Thus chimpanzee social behavior most closely mirrors the antagonistic behavior of the antisocial-narcissistic-borderline-histrionic cluster of personality disorders.

    • In contrast, the bonobos have evolved to be socially anxious, peaceful, cooperative, and loving. Thus bonobo social behavior most closely mirrors the negative emotion (anxious) behavior of the avoidant-dependent cluster of personality disorders.

    • Another separate evolutionary path was followed by the orangutans. They evolved to become solitary hermits. Thus orangutan social behavior most closely mirrors the detached behavior of the paranoid-schizoid-schizotypal cluster of personality disorders.

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