|NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER||
Narcissistic Personality Disorder F60.8 - ICD10 Description, World Health Organization
Narcissistic Personality Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria, American Psychiatric AssociationLike all personality disorders, narcissistic personality disorder is a deeply ingrained and enduring behaviour pattern, manifesting as an inflexible response to a broad range of personal and social situations. This behavior represents an extreme or significant deviation from the way in which the average individual in a given culture relates to others. This behaviour pattern tends to be stable. It causes subjective distress and problems in social performance.
Core FeaturesIndividuals with narcissistic personality disorder grow up feeling superior and needing to be admired. They have a longstanding pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy. The core feature of this disorder is antagonism (grandiosity, attention-seeking, callousness) which repeatedly puts the individual at odds with other people. This disorder is only diagnosed if: (1) it begins no later than early adulthood, (2) these behaviors occur at home, work, and in the community, and (3) these behaviors lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
Lack Of Social Skills And Personality DisordersThere are social skills that are essential for healthy social functioning. Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder lack the essential social skills of humility, cooperation/generosity, and kindness. They also lack genuineness (that is also lacking in Histrionic Personality Disorder).
Social Skills That Are Lacking In Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder are so closely related that they are referred to as the "antagonistic" cluster of personality disorders.
Social Skills That Are Lacking In The "Antagonistic" Cluster Of Personality Disorders
Social FunctioningInterpersonal relations of individuals with narcissistic personality disorder are typically impaired because of their feelings of entitlement, need for admiration, and callousness. Although these individuals are usually very ambitious and confident; vocational functioning often is impaired because of intolerance of criticism or defeat.
Narcissistic TraitsIndividuals with narcissistic personality disorder show an exaggerated sense of self-importance, insensitivity towards the feelings and needs of others, and callous exploitation of others. They alienate others with their arrogance, self-centeredness, greed, and lack of kindness. They have feelings of entitlement; they often expect to be catered to and are furious when this does not happen. They are attention-seeking and admiration seeking. In severe cases, this disorder can develop into "malignant narcissism" with manipulativeness, deceitfulness, and callousness. This malignant narcissism is identical to the selfish, callous and remorseless use of others that is seen in psychopaths. Some individuals with malignant narcissism rise to high positions of power in society by becoming masters of manipulation and deceit.
Effectiveness Of TherapyThe effectiveness of treatment for narcissistic personality disorder is unknown because there are no randomized controlled trials. Individuals with this disorder seldom voluntarily present for treatment. However, individuals with this disorder may threaten suicide during a crisis (e.g., when discovering their spouse's infidelity). The individual may then use hospitalization as a manipulative ploy to win back their spouse, or to publicly expose their spouse's infidelity. Usually only brief hospitalization is required, with the goal being to de-escalate the crisis. Apart from such crisis intervention, most therapists believe that this disorder is very difficult to treat. However, with long-term therapy, some patients do gain insight into how they have become addicted to wealth, fame, or power, and how callous they have become. Admitting that they do have this addiction is the first step to recovery.
Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?The ancient Greek civilization lasted for 1,300 years (8th century BC to 6th century AD). The ancient Greek philosophers taught that the 5 pillars of their civilization were: wisdom, courage, community, moderation, and justice. Psychiatry named the opposite of each of these 5 ancient themes as being a major dimension of psychopathology (i.e., irrationality, negative emotion, detachment, disinhibition, and antagonism). (Psychology named these same factors the "Big 5 dimensions of personality": "intellect", "neuroticism", "extraversion", "conscientiousness", and "agreeableness")
PrevalenceThe prevalence of narcissistic personality disorder is ranges from 0% to 6.2% in community samples, and 50% to 75% are males.
CourseNarcissistic traits are very common in adolescents, but most adolescents grow out of this behavior. Unfortunately, for some, this narcissistic behavior persists and intensifies into adulthood; thus they become diagnosed with this disorder.
Some other disorders frequently occur with this disorder:
Associated Laboratory FindingsNo laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of narcissistic personality disorder.
Primate EvolutionThere appears to be three different ways in which primates have evolved socially:
Core Behaviors Of The Antagonistic Cluster Of Personality Disorders
Cleopatra Seducing Caesar and Mark Antony
In this cluster of personality disorders, the males tend to be like Caesar and have antisocial and/or narcissistic personality disorders, and the females tend to be like Cleopatra and have borderline and/or histrionic personality disorders. The core feature of this cluster of personality disorders is antagonism. These individuals seem to be unconcerned about how their actions harm or upset others.
There is a brilliant definition of Narcissistic Personality Disorder in the song "God Help The Outcasts" (from the "Hunchback Of Notre Dame")
Parental Behaviors Which Increase The Risk Of Developing A Personality DisorderResearch has shown that genetic, environmental, and prenatal factors all play important roles in the development of personality disorder. Recent research has also shown that low parental affection and harsh parenting increase the risk of a child later developing a personality disorder.
Setting Goals In Therapy
Individuals With Narcissistic Personality Usually Don't Seek TherapyIndividuals with narcissistic disorder are difficult to treat. They view themselves as being superior, and thus feel entitled to be callous, self-centered, and greedy. Their viewpoint is that life is the "survival of the fittest", and they are the "fittest". These individuals lust after fame, fortune and power. Many of these individuals achieve high positions in politics, religion and commerce. Most religious cult leaders have severe narcissistic personality disorder.
Dictators Usually Have A Dangerous Combination of Personality DisordersAll of history's worst dictators had a combination of Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorders.
Social Skills That Are Lacking In History's Worst Dictators
Given the amount of harm that these dictators created (e.g., Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Mao Zedong); it could be argued that the social skills that dictators lack are the most important of all the social skills. Thus it should come as no surprise that all of the world's religions emphasize the importance of these social skills (e.g., trust, forgiveness, gratitude, humility, cooperation, generosity, kindness, respect, responsibility, and honesty).
Dictators have a total disregard for the casaulties they cause in war. To them, war is just a chess game, and soldiers are just pawns to be sacrificed. For example, during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon had 3 million troops, of which 1.7 million were killed. The following movie correctly depicts how Napoleon sacrificed his troops for his own personal glory and wealth.
The story of Adolf Hitler will always be a testament to how extremely dangerous a leader with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder can be. The following documentary movie is an excellent summary of the senseless slaughter of millions caused by Adolf Hitler.
Hate-filled, Hitler-like individuals with Paranoid + Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder must be stopped before they ever assume power.
Research has found that that people with more money are more likely to be rude and break rules. Researcher Paul Piff found that “narcissism is not evenly distributed across social strata" ... “higher social class is associated with increased entitlement and narcissism.”
Certain individuals with Narcissistic + Psychopathic Personality Disorder have amassed great power and wealth. These fabulously rich individuals totally neglect the poor and the starving, and care only about accumulating more wealth, fame and power - even if it means oppressing half of humanity.
Free Diagnosis Of This Disorder
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